An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 141 Search : system
positional number system
  راژمان ِ عددی ِ نهشی   
râžmân-e adadi-ye neheši

Fr.: système de numération positionnel   

A → number system in which the value of each digit is determined by which place it appears in the full number. The lowest place value is the rightmost position, and each successive position to the left has a higher place value. In the → number system conversion, the rightmost position represents the "ones" column, the next position represents the "tens" column, the next position represents "hundreds", etc. The values of each position correspond to powers of the → base of the number system. For example, in the usual decimal number system, which uses base 10, the place values correspond to powers of 10. Same as → place-value notation and → positional notation. See also → number system conversion.

positional; → number; → system.

Ptolemaic system
  راژمان ِ بتلمیوس، ~ بطلمیوس   
râžmân-e Batlamyus

Fr.: système de Ptolémée   

An empirical model developed by Ptolemy about 150 A.D., in which a motionless Earth was the center of the Universe. The Sun, Moon, and planets revolved around the Earth in → eccentric circles and → epicycles. The fixed stars were attached to an outer sphere concentric with Earth. The Ptolemaic system gave the positions of the planets accurately enough for naked-eye observations, although it also had serious defects. As an extreme example, according to Ptolemy's model for the Moon, our satellite should appear to be almost twice as large when it is full than it is at quadrature, which is an absurdity since it is not seen as such.

Claudius Ptolemaeus was a mathematician, geographer, astronomer, and astrologer. The most influential of Greek astronomers, he lived in Roman Egypt, and was probably born there; he died in Alexandria in 165 A.D.; → system.

quadruple system
  راژمان ِ چهارتایی   
râžmân-e cahârtâyi

Fr.: système quadruple   

A stellar system consisting of four stars orbiting around a common → center of mass.

quadruple; → system.

quantum mechanical system
  راژمان ِ کو‌آنتوم مکانیکی   
râžmân-e kuântom mekâniki

Fr.: système mécanique quantique   

A → physical system that is specified by a → wave function.

quantum; → mechanical; → system.

quasi-closed subsystem
  زیر-راژمان ِ چونان‌بسته   
zir-râžmân-e cunân-basté

Fr.: sous-système quasi-fermé   

A subsystem if its intrinsic energy is large, on the average, with respect to the energy of its interaction with other portions of the → closed system.

quasi-; → closed; → subsystem.

rectilinear system
  راژمان ِ راست‌خط   
râžmân-e râst-xatt

Fr.: système rectilinéaire   

An optical system that is corrected for → distortion and → spherical aberration and therefore forms the image of a straight line as a straight line.

rectilinear; → system.

relational system
  راژمان ِ بازانشی   
râžmân-e bâzâneši

Fr.: système relationnel   

A database management system in which a relational data structure is used.

relational; → system.

relaxed system
  راژمان ِ واهلیده   
râžmân-e vâhalidé

Fr.: système relaxé   

A → dynamical system that has regained its → equilibrium. Especially a system in which the kinetic and potential energies obey a specific relationship known as the → virial theorem.

P.p. from relax, → relaxation.

ring system
  راژمان ِ حلقه‌ای   
râžmân-e halqe-yi

Fr.: système d'anneaux   

planetary ring system.

ring; → system.

Roman numeral system
  راژمان ِ عددهای ِ رومی   
râžmân-e adadhâ-ye Rumi

Fr.: numération romaine   

A → number system in which letters represent numbers, still used occasionally today. The cardinal numbers are expressed by the following seven letters: I (1), V (5), X (10), L (50), C (100), D (500), and M (1,000). If a numeral with smaller value is written on right of greater value then smaller value is added to the greater one. If it is preceded by one of lower value, the smaller numeral is subtracted from the greater. Thus VI = 6 (V + I), but IV = 4 (V - I). Other examples are XC (90), CL (150), XXII (22), XCVII (97), CCCXCV (395). If symbol is repeated then its value is added. The symbols I, X, C and M can be repeated maximum 3 times. A dash line over a numeral multiplies the value by 1,000. For example V- = 5000, X- = 10,000, C- = 100,000, and DLIX- = 559,000.

numeral; → system.

semidetached system
  راژمان ِ نیم-جدا   
râšmân-e nim-jodâ

Fr.: système semi-détaché   

Same as → semidetached binary.

semi-; detached, p.p. of detach, from O.Fr. destachier (Fr. détacher), from des- "apart," + -tachier (as in atachier "to attach"); → system.

Râžmân, → system; nim-jodâ, from nim-semi- + jodâ "separate," from Mid.Pers. yut "separate, different;" Av. yuta- "separate, apart."

sexagesimal system
  راژمان ِ شست-شستی   
râžmân-e šast-šasti

Fr.: système sexagésimal   

A number system whose base is 60. It originated with the ancient Sumerians around 2000 B.C., was transmitted to the Babylonians, and is still used in modified form for measuring time, angles, and geographic coordinates.

sexagesimal; → system.

SI system
  راژمان ِ SI   
râžmân-e SI

Fr.: système international   

The system of → SI units.

SI units.

small solar system body
  جسم ِ کوچک ِ راژمان ِ خورشیدی   
jesm-e kucak-e râžmân-e xoršidi

Fr.: petit corps du système solaire   

A term introduced by the → International Astronomical Union (August 2006) to name the → solar system bodies other than → planets and → dwarf planets. Small solar system bodies include → asteroids, → comets, and → meteoroids.

small; → solar; → system; → body.

solar system
  راژمان ِ خورشیدی   
râšmân-e xoršidi

Fr.: Système solaire   

The collective name for the Sun and all objects gravitationally bound to it. These objects are the eight planets, their 166 known moons, five dwarf planets, and billions of small bodies. The small bodies include asteroids, icy Kuiper belt objects, comets, meteoroids, and interplanetary dust. The solar system is roughly a sphere with a radius greater than 100,000 AU. Planets, satellites, and all interplanetary material together comprise only about 1/750 of the total mass. Geochemical dating methods show that the solar system chemically isolated itself from the rest of the Galaxy (4.7 ± 0.1) × 109 years ago.

solar; → system.

solar system abundance
  فراوانی ِ راژمان ِ خورشیدی   
farâvâni-ye râžmân-e xoršidi

Fr.: abondance dans le système solaire   

Same as → protosolar abundance.

solar system; → abundance.

standard system
  راژمان ِ استانده   
râžmân-e estândé

Fr.: système standard   

Photometric system used as a reference.

standard; → system.

star system
  راژمان ِ ستاره‌ای   
râžmân-e setâre-yi

Fr.: système stellaire   

Same as → stellar system.

stellar; → system.

stellar system
  راژمان ِ ستاره‌ای   
râžmân-e setâre-yi

Fr.: système stellaire   

A system comprised of a group of stars bound by → gravitational attraction. Same as → star system.

stellar; → system.

Stromgren system
  راژمان ِ استرومگرن   
râžmân-e Strömgren

Fr.: système de Strömgren   

A → photometric system, also called the → uvby system.

Stromgren sphere; → system.

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