An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 141 Search : system

Fr.: sous-système   

A coherent component of a larger system.

sub-; → system

supergalactic coordinate system
  راژمان ِ هماراهای ابرکهکشانی   
râžmân-e hamârâhâ-ye abarkahkašâni

Fr.: système des coordonnées supergalactiques   

A spherical → coordinate system in which the → equator is the → supergalactic plane. Supergalactic longitude, SGL, is measured → counterclockwise from direction l = 137.37 deg, b = 0 deg (between 0 and 360 deg). The zero point for supergalactic longitude is defined by the intersection of this plane with the → Galactic plane. In the → equatorial coordinate system (J2000) this is approximately 2.82 h, +59.5 deg. Supergalactic latitude, SGB, is measured from the supergalactic plane, positive northward and negative southward. The North Supergalactic Pole (SGB=90 deg) lies at galactic coordinates l = 47.37 deg, b = +6.32 degrees, corresponding to the equatorial coordinate system (J2000) 18.9 h, +15.7 deg.

supergalactic; → coordinate; → system.


Fr.: système   

1a) An assemblage or combination of things or parts forming a complex or unitary whole.
1b) An ordered and comprehensive assemblage of facts, principles, doctrines, or the like in a particular field of knowledge or thought (
2) Physics: An aggregate composed of physical bodies which we isolate, in our mind, from the region external to it in order to analyze physical situations. Everything outside the system which has a direct bearing on its behavior is called the → environment.
3) Astro.: An entity composed of a number of astronomical objects associated and acting together according to certain natural laws.
4) Computers: A system consisting of components (a combination of the hardware, software, and firmware) which are connected together in order to accomplish a specific function or set of functions.

From L.L. systema "an arrangement, a whole consisting of several parts," from Gk. systema "arrangement, organized whole," from sy-, variant of syn- "together" + ste- variant stem of histanai "to cause to stand" (from PIE base *sta- "to stand;" cf. Pers. ist, istâdan "to stand;" Mid.Pers. êstâtan; O.Pers./Av. sta- "to stand, stand still; set;" Av. hištaiti; cf. Skt. sthâ- "to stand;" Gk. histemi "put, place, weigh," stasis "a standing still;" L. stare "to stand;" Lith. statau "place;" Goth. standan; PIE base *sta- "to stand") + -ma nominal suffix denoting result of action.

Râžmân, from raž, from Av. rāz- "to direct, put in line, set," rasman- "the lines or files of the army," razan "rule, order" (variants raj, râž, rak, râk, rezg (Lori), radé, râdé "line, rule, row," rasté, râsté "row, a market with regular ranges of shops;" ris, risé "straight"), related to râst "right, true; just, upright, straight;" Mid.Pers. râst "true, straight, direct," rây-, râyênitan "to arrange;" Sogdian rəšt "right;" O.Pers. rāsta- "straight, true," rās- "to be right, straight, true;" cf. Skt. raj- "to direct, stretch," rjuyant- "walking straight;" Gk. orektos "stretched out;" L. regere "to lead straight, guide, rule," p.p. rectus "right, straight;" PIE base *reg- "move in a straight line," hence, "to direct, rule;" + -mân verbal noun suffix used with present and past stems, as in zâymân, câymân, sâxtemân, goftemân.

system manager
  گنارگر ِ راژمان   
gonârgar-e râžmân

Fr.: administrateur de système   

A person in charge of the configuration and administration of a multi-user computer system inside a network.

system; → manager.

system noise
  نوفه‌ی ِ راژمان   
nufe-ye râžmân

Fr.: bruit de système   

The noise in a radio telescope, composed of the receiver noise and the sky noise.

system; → noise.


Fr.: systématique   

Having, showing, or involving a system, method, or plan.

L.L., from Gk. systematikos; → system; → -ic.

Râžmânvâr, râžmânmand, from râžmân, → system, + -mand suffix of possession.

systematic error
  ایرنگ ِ راژمان‌مند   
irang-e râžmânmand

Fr.: erreur systématique   

The error that is constant in a series of repetitions of the same experiment or observation. Usually, systematic error is defined as the expected value of the overall error. opposite of → random error.

systematic; → error.


Fr.: systématique, taxinomie   

Biology: The science that deals with the systematic naming and classification of all kinds of organisms.

From → systematic + → -ics.


Fr.: systémique   

Relating to or affecting a system as a whole.

system; → -ic.

systems theory
  نگره‌ی ِ راژمان   
negare-ye râžmân

Fr.: théorie des systèmes   

An interdisciplinary field of science which deals with the nature of complex systems in nature, society, and science, and studies complex parts of reality as systems.

system; → theory.

thermodynamic system
  راژمان ِ گرماتوانیک   
râžmân-e garmâtavânik

Fr.: système thermodynamique   

A quantity of substance or a working machine which in a well-defined way is set apart from its → environment. The boundary between the system and its surroundings can be real or an imaginary mathematical envelope. A thermodynamic system is not necessarily bound to a predefined geometry. Thermodynamic systems can be divided into three types: → open systems, → closed systems, and → isomated systems.

thermodynamic; → system.

tightly bound binary star system
  راژمان ِ ستاره‌ای ِ درین ِ تنگ بندیده   
râžmân-e setâre-yi-ye dorin-e tang bandide

Fr.: système d'étoiles binaire très lié   

close binary star.

tight; → bound system; → binary star.

transmission system
  راژمان ِ تراگسیل   
râžmân-e tarâgosil

Fr.: système de transmission   

An assembly of elements which are capable of functioning together to transmit power or signals.

transmission; → system.

triple system
  راژمان ِ سه‌تایی   
râžmân-e setâyi

Fr.: système triple   

A system of three stars which are physically associated among them.

triple; → system

two-body system
  راژمان ِ دو جسم   
râžmân-e do jesm

Fr.: système à deux corps   

A → dynamical system consisting of two masses that interact via → central forces.

two; → body; → system.

UBV system
  راژمان ِ UBV   
râžmân-e UBV

Fr.: système photométrique UBV   

A → photometric system which consists of measuring an object's → apparent magnitude through three broad-band filters: the ultraviolet (U) at 3650 Å, the blue (B) at 4400 Å, and the visual (V) in the green-yellow spectral region at 5500 Å. The filter bandwidths are 680, 980, and 890 Å respectively. The system is defined so that for A0 stars B - V = U - B = 0. The system was devised by Harold Johnson (1921-1980) and William Morgan (1906-1994) at Yerkes Observatory. It was extended to the R and I bands centered at 7000 and 9000 Å respectively and later to other infrared bands.

U, B, and V referring to "ultraviolet," "blue," and "visible" respectively; → system.

unbound system
  راژمان ِ نابندیده   
râžân-e nâbandidé

Fr.: système non lié   

An association of bodies which are not gravitationally tied together.

unbound; → system.

unbound young stellar system (UYSS)
  راژمان ِ ستاره‌ای ِ جوان ِ نابندیده   
râžmân-e setâre-yi-ye javân-e nâbandidé

Fr.: système stellaire jeune non lié   

A class of gravitationally loose stellar conglomerate with a notable apparent shape making it different from typical → bound  → star clusters. The UYSS class includes a large range of objects, which extend at various size scales and at various degrees of self-binding; from small (semi-)compact → unbound systems named → stellar associations, to huge extended superstructures of → massive stars that make up whole parts of Galactic → spiral arms, known as → stellar complexes (Gouliermis, D. A., 2018, PASP 130:072001; arXiv:1806.11541).

unbound; → young; → stellar; → system.

Ursa Minor system
  راژمان ِ خرس ِ کوچک   
râžmân-e Xers-e Kucak

Fr.: galaxie naine d'Ursa Minor   

A dwarf spheroidal galaxy of faint luminosity that is a member of the Local Group.

Ursa Minor; → system.

uvby system
  راژمان ِ uvby   
râžmân-e uvby

Fr.: système photométrique uvby   

A four-color stellar → photometric system devised by B. Strömgren. It is based on measurements in the ultraviolet (3500 Å), violet (4100 Å), blue (4670 Å), and yellow (5470 Å) regions of the spectrum. The filters bandwidths are 340, 200, 160, and 240 Å respectively. Also known as Strömgren four-color photometry.

u, v, b, and y referring to ultraviolet, violet, blue, and yellow respectively; → system.

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