An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



Number of Results: 5 Search : Zeeman effect
anomalous Zeeman effect
  اُسکر ِ زیمن ِ ناسان   
oskar-e Zeeman-e nâsân

Fr.: effet Zeeman anormal   

The splitting of a spectral line into several components in the → Zeeman effect when the magnetic field is weak. The splitting is much more complex than in the normal effect. The number of components of the lines often considerably exceeds their number in the normal effect. Contrarily to the normal Zeeman effect, the anomalous effect cannot be explained by classical theory. The historically "anomalous" effect is accounted for by the inclusion of electron spin in the total angular moment. In fact the idea of electron spin was put forward (Uhlenbeck and Goudsmit, 1926) to explain the anomalous Zeeman effect.

anomalous; → Zeeman effect.

inverse Zeeman effect
  اُسکر ِ زیمن ِ وارون   
oskar-e Zeeman-e vârun

Fr.: effet Zeeman inverse   

The → Zeeman effect obtained in absorption. The phenomenon is observed by sending white light through an absorbing vapor when the latter is subjected to a uniform magnetic field. The laws governing the inverse effect are similar to those for the direct effect.

inverse; → Zeeman effect.

longitudinal Zeeman effect
  اُسکر ِ زیمن ِ درژنایی   
oskar-e Zeeman-e derežnâyi

Fr.: effet Zeeman longitudinal   

The → Zeeman effect when the emitting source is viewed in the direction of the magnetic field. In the normal longitudinal effect, each spectral line is split into two components with frequencies ν ± Δν. The line with the frequency ν - Δν shows left-hand → circular polarization and that with frequency ν + Δν shows right-hand circular polarization. → transverse Zeeman effect.

longitudinal; → Zeeman effect.

transverse Zeeman effect
  اُسکر ِ زیمن ِ تراگذر   
oskar-e Zeeman-e tarâgozar

Fr.: effet Zeeman transverse   

The → Zeeman effect when observed at right angles to the orientation of the magnetic field. Un un-displaced line is observed along with a doublet, three lines in all, with the frequencies ν and ν ± Δν. The two displaced components correspond to a plane of → polarization parallel to the external magnetic field and the un-displaced line to a plane of polarization perpendicular to this field. → longitudinal Zeeman effect.

transverse; → Zeeman effect.

Zeeman effect
  اُسکر ِ زیمن   
oskar-e Zeeman

Fr.: effet Zeeman   

The splitting of spectral lines into closely-spaced components when the radiating substance is placed in a strong → magnetic field. Distinction is made between the normal and → anomalous Zeeman effects, and also the longitudinal and transverse Zeeman effects. In the normal → longitudinal Zeeman effect each spectral line is split into two components with frequencies ν ± Δν. In the normal → transverse Zeeman effect un un-displaced line is observed along with a doublet, i.e. three lines in all, with the frequencies ν and ν ±Δν. In the classical theory of the normal Zeeman effect, the motion of an electron in an atom is regarded as the harmonic oscillation of a linear harmonic oscillator. Arbitrary linearly polarized oscillation of the electron can be resolved into two oscillations: one along the magnetic field and the other in a plane perpendicular to this field. The latter can be further resolved into two oscillations, circularly polarized with opposite directions of rotation that occur in the Larmor precession frequency. Classical theory cannot explain the anomalous Zeeman effect. Both effects are accounted for in quantum mechanics as the result of changes in the energy levels of atomic electrons due to the interaction of their → orbital angular momentum and → spin angular momentum with each other and with the external magnetic field. See also → inverse Zeeman effect.

Named after Pieter Zeeman (1865-1943), Dutch physicist who discovered the phenomenon; → effect.