Fr.: événement composé
In statistics, an event whose probability of occurrence depends upon the probability of occurrence of two or more independent events.
ruydâd-e partowhâ-ye keyhâni
Fr.: événement des rayons cosmiques, un cosmique
Spurious signals in CCD frames caused by ionizing radiation which appear as a set of pixels with intense values sparsely scattered over the CCD frame. High energy particles generate muons, which deposit around 80 electrons per micron in silicon. With a collection depth of 10-20 microns, a cosmic-ray event is seen on a CCD frame as having a signal of up to a few thousand electrons, usually concentrated in one or two pixels. Although attributed to cosmic-ray hits, they may also be due to background terrestrial radiation.
Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event
ruydâd-e xâmuši-ye Gacâsâ-Pârinzâd
Fr.: extinction Crétacé-Tertiaire
The → mass extinction event that destroyed the dinosaurs and a majority of other species on Earth approximately 65 million years ago. This event is believed to have been the impact of a 10 km-size → asteroid or → comet nucleus and its aftereffects, including a severe → impact winter. The collision would have released the energy equivalent to 100 million megatonnes (teratonnes) of → TNT, i.e. more than 109 times the energy of the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima on August 6, 1945. Same as the → Cretaceous-Tertiary event.
ruydâd-e K-T (#)
Fr.: événement K-T
1) General: Something that happens or is regarded as happening; an occurrence,
especially one of some importance.
From M.Fr. event, from L. eventus "occurrence, issue," from evenire "to come out, happen, result," from → ex- "out" + venire "to come," from PIE base *gwem- "to go, come;" cf. Mod/Mid.Pers. gâm "step, pace;" O.Pers. gam- "to come; to go;" Av. gam- "to come; to go," jamaiti "goes;" Mod.Pers. âmadan "to come;" Skt. gamati "goes;" Gk. bainein "to go, walk, step;" L. venire "to come;" Tocharian A käm- "to come;" O.H.G. queman "to come;" E. come.
Ruydâd, noun from ruy dâdan "to occur, happen," originally "to appear," from ruy "face; aspect; appearance" (Mid.Pers. rôy, rôdh "face;" Av. raoδa- "growth," in plural "appearance," from raod- "to grow, sprout, shoot;" cf. Skt. róha- "rising, height") + dâdan "to give; to command" (Mid.Pers. dâdan "to give;" O.Pers./Av. dā- "to give, grant, yield," dadāiti "he gives;" cf. Skt. dadáti "he gives;" Gk. didomi "I give;" L. dare "to give, offer," facere to make;" PIE base *do- to give").
ofoq-e ruydâd (#)
Fr.: horizon d'événement
1) The surface surrounding a → black hole with the property
that any light ray emitted inside it cannot escape to the outer space because of the
strength of the → gravitational field. The radius of the
event horizon is called the → Schwarzschild radius.
See also → photon sphere.
Event Horizon Telescope (EHT)
Teleskop-e Ofoq-e Ruydâd
Fr.: Télescope de l'horizon des évènements
An international collaboration using a → very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) array comprising millimeter- and → submillimeter- wavelength telescopes separated by distances comparable to the diameter of the Earth. At a nominal operating wavelength of ~1.3 mm, the EHT → angular resolution (λ/D) is ~25 μas (→ micro- → arcseconds), which is sufficient to resolve nearby → supermassive black hole candidates on spatial and temporal scales that correspond to their → event horizons. EHT observations toward the elliptical → galaxy M87 succeeded in obtaining the first ever image of its supermassive black hole (EHT Collaboration, 2019, ApJL 875, L1-L6). The telescopes contributing to this result were ALMA, APEX, the IRAM 30-m telescope, the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, the Large Millimeter Telescope Alfonso Serrano, the Submillimeter Array, the Submillimeter Telescope, and the South Pole Telescope. Petabytes of raw data from the telescopes were combined by highly specialized supercomputers hosted by the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy and MIT Haystack Observatory. The construction of the EHT and the M87 black hole observation result from decades of observational, technical, and theoretical work in close collaboration by researchers from around the world. Thirteen partner institutions worked together to create the EHT, using both pre-existing infrastructure and support from a variety of agencies. Key funding was provided by the US National Science Foundation (NSF), the EU's European Research Council (ERC), and funding agencies in East Asia.
Fr.: impact cosmique
A collision between two celestial objects, specially solar system bodies, with considerable consequences. Impact events involve release of large amounts of energy. Some examples are the 1908 Siberian → Tunguska event by a → comet, the → Barringer Crater, and the collision of an → asteroid with Earth 65 million years ago, which is thought to have led to the extinction of the dinosaurs and other species of the → Cretaceous-Paleogene period.
ruydâdhâ-ye nâvâbasté (#)
Fr.: événements indépendants
Statistics: Two events if the occurrence of one of them gives no → information about whether or not the other event will occur; these events have no influence on each other.
ruydâd-e K-T (#)
Fr.: événement K-T
Same as the → Cretaceous-Tertiary event.
Fr.: événement de microlentille
The effect arising whenever a source star and lens star pass each other at an angular separation involving the → Einstein radius (RE) of the lens. The time-scale for such an event is defined as tE = RE/v, where v is the magnitude of the relative transverse velocity between source and lens projected onto the lens plane.
Fr.: événement de polarité
A specific event in the history of Earth's magnetic field. Usually used in reference to a specific → polarity reversal.
Fr.: événement simple
Statistics: An event consisting of a single point of the → sample space.
tidal disruption event (TDE)
ruydâd-e gosixt-e kešandi
Fr.: événement de rupture par effet de marée
The process in which a star is torn apart by the → tidal forces of a → supermassive black hole. About 50% of the star's mass is eventually → accreted by the → black hole, generating a flare, which, in extreme cases of very high (→ super-Eddington) mass → accretion rates, can result in a → relativistic jet. TDEs have been proposed as sources of → ultra-high-energy cosmic rays and suggested as sources of high energy astrophysical → neutrinos (W. Winter and C. Lunardini, 2021, Nature Astronomy, arXiv:2005.06097 and references therein).
ruydâd-e Tunguska (#)
Fr.: événement de la Toungouska
The violent impact of a comet or meteorite in the Tunguska region of Siberia on 30 June 1908. The object exploded in the atmosphere before touching the ground at an estimated height of 5-10 km. Observers reported seeing a fireball as bright as the Sun. The explosion caused a shock wave that shook buildings and caused damage, though there was no loss of human life. The first expedition to the remote area of the explosion took place in 1927. An estimated 80 million trees covering more than 2,150 square km were flattened. The energy of the explosion is estimated to have been equivalent to that of about 15 → megatons of TNT , a thousand times more powerful than the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima in 1945.
From the name of the central Siberian region, Russ. Podkamennaya (Lower Stony) Tunguska River, today Krasnoyarsk Krai; → event.