An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



Number of Results: 5 Search : finger
angošt (#)

Fr.: doigt   

Any of the terminal members of the hand, especially one other than the thumb (

M.E., from O.E. fingor, cognate with Ger. Finger, Du. vinger, O.N. fingr, Goth. figgrs.

Angošt, variants angol, angul (also angal "loop"); Mid.Pers. angust; Av. angušta- "toe," ank- "curved, crooked;" cf. Skt. angustha- "thumb," angula- "finger," ankah "hook, bent;" Gk. angkon "elbow," angkura "anchor;" L. angulum "corner;" Lith. anka "loop;" O.E. ancleo "ankle;" O.H.G. ango "hook;" PIE *ang-/*ank- "to bend".

fingering convection
  همبز ِ انگشتوار   
hambaz-e angoštvâr


A weak yet important kind of mixing that results from → fingering instability in stars within → radiative zones that have an unstable mean → molecular weight  → gradient. Also called → thermohaline convection.

finger; → -ing; → convection.

fingering instability
  ناپایداری ِ انگشتوار   
nâpâydâri-ye angoštvâr

Fr.: instabilité à traines   

A type of instability that often occurs in fluids which are thermally stably stratified, but have an inhomogeneous composition. A well-known example, found in upper layers of the Earth's oceans, is → salt fingers. Similar fingering instabilities can occur in any other thermally stably stratified solution, provided the concentration of the slower-diffusing solute increases with height. The saturated state of this instability, → fingering convection, takes the form of tightly-packed, vertically-elongated plumes of sinking dense fluid and rising light fluid, and significantly enhances the vertical transport of both heat and chemical composition. The fingering instability occurs in stars within radiation zones that have an unstable mean → molecular weight  → gradient (μ gradient). This situation is often found as a result of material accretion onto a star by anything from a single or multiple planets, to material from a dust-enriched or debris accretion disk, or material from a more evolved companion. It also naturally arises in the vicinity of the → hydrogen shell burning in → red giant branch (RGB) stars, and in thin element-rich layers near the surface of intermediate-mass stars. The fingering instability initially takes the form of thin tubes, hence the name "finger," within which the fluid moves vertically. The tubes rapidly break down, however, as a result of parasitic shear instabilities that develop inbetween them, and the fingering instability eventually saturates into a state of homogeneous fingering convection where the typical aspect ratio of the eddies is closer to one (P. Garaud et al., 2015, arXiv:1505.07759).

finger; → -ing; → instability.

fingers of God
  انگشتان ِ خدا   
angoštân-e Xodâ

Fr.: doigts de Dieu   

A → redshift space distortion which causes the dense central regions of → galaxy clusters to appear elongated along the → line of sight. This effect is attributed to random velocities in clusters of galaxies deviating from pure → Hubble flow. For an observer galaxies with peculiar velocity perpendicular to the line of sight do not change the redshift, which is given just by the normal Hubble expansion. On the contrary, galaxies with peculiar velocity along the line of sight appear with a different redshift, resulting from the Hubble expansion velocity plus the peculiar velocity. Since this affects only redshift and not position on the sky, the stretching occurs only radially, toward the observer. See also → Kaiser effect, → peculiar velocity.

finger; → God.

salt finger
  انگشت ِ نمک   
angošt-e namak

Fr.: doigts de sel   

Oceanography: One of several alternating columns of rising and descending water resulting from a → mixing process that occurs when warm salty water overlies a colder and relatively fresher layer of water. If the overlying salty water loses enough heat, it sinks down into the colder, fresher water, lengthening into a finger of salty water. Becuse the finger loses heat faster than it loses salt, the salt finger will continue to sink (salty water is denser than fresh water of the same temperature). Hence the salt finger loses more heat and displaces the colder water around it, which rises up and mixes into the warm salty layer above. Salt fingers are an example of → double-diffusive convection and play an important role in oceanic mixing. See also → fingering instability, → fingering convection.

salt; → finger.