European Southern Observatory (ESO)
nepâhešgâh-e orupâyi-ye daštari
Fr.: Organisation européenne pour la recherche astronomique dans l'hémisphère austral
An major intergovernmental research organisation in astronomy supported by 14 European countries. ESO was founded in 1962 as a consortium among Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, the Netherlands, and Sweden. The ESO Headquarters are located in Garching near Munich, Germany. The organization operates three outstanding observing sites in the Atacama Desert region of Chile: → La Silla, → Paranal, and Chajnantor. The → Very Large Telescope (VLT), the world's most advanced visible-light astronomical facility, is located on the 2600 m high mountain of Paranal, which also hosts the → VLT Interferometer (VLTI). The Chajnantor site, 5000 m above sea level, near San Pedro de Atacama, operates a submillimeter telescope (APEX). Moreover, a giant array of 12 m submillimeter antennas, called → ALMA, is being constructed in collaboration with North America, East Asia and Chile. ESO is currently planning a 42 m European Extremely Large optical/near-infrared Telescope, the → E-ELT.
geographic south pole
qotb-e daštar-e zaminnegârik
Fr.: pôle sud géographique
→ south pole.
magnetic south pole
qotab-e daštar-e meqnâtisi
Fr.: pôle sud magnétique
The cardinal point which is opposite to north. It is also the direction of the Sun at local noon (in the northern hemisphere).
M.E. suth(e), south(e), from O.E. suth "southward, in the south;" cf. O.S., O.Fris. suth "southward, in the south," M.Du. suut), O.H.G. sund, perhaps related to base of *sunnon "sun," with sense of "the region of the sun."
South is related to right since it is to the right when one faces the rising Sun.
This occurs in, for example, in Av., Skt., and O.Ir., as below.
South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA)
nâsâni-ye Atlas-e daštar
Fr.: Anomalie Atlantique Sud
A region of the Earth where the inner → Van Allen belt comes closest to the Earth's surface. It is due to the fact that the → geomagnetic field is offset from the center of the Earth. The region is centered near 25 degrees South 50 degrees West, close to the Atlantic coast of Brazil. The excess of trapped energetic particles in that region presents a problem for satellites in orbit around the Earth.
south celestial pole
qotb-e âsmâni-ye daštar
Fr.: pôle sud céleste
Fr.: point Sud
South Polar Layered Deposits (SPLD)
Lerdhâ-ye Laye-laye-ye Qotb-e Daštar
Fr.: couches de dépôt du pôle sud
A large area of the south polar region of → Mars which is covered with layers of → water ice and → dust. The SPLD, like the NPLD, has a maximum relief relative to the surrounding terrain of ~ 3.5 km and ~ 1,000 km across. Above the SPLD lies a very thin temporary (1-10 m) cap of → carbon dioxide ice/frost that snows out in the winter and sublimates over the spring and summer seasons. It is believed that the rhythmic nature of the deposits is related to oscillations in Mars' → orbital parameters (J. J. Plaut et al., 2007, Science 316, 92).
Fr.: pôle Sud
1) An → imaginary point in the
→ southern hemisphere representing the intersection of the
→ Earth's → rotation axis with the
→ globe with the → celestial sphere.
South Pole Star
setâre-ye qotb-e daštar
Fr.: étoile du pôle sud
A star that would mark the south → celestial pole. Presently no bright visible star is situated along the → rotation axis of the Earth in the southern hemisphere. But, because of the Earth's → axial precession, about 7,000 years from now the star → Delta Velorum in the constellation → Vela, the Sail, will come to within 0.2 degrees of the South Celestial Pole (around the year 9250 B.C.). That is closer to marking the celestial pole than → Polaris or → Sirius ever do during their reigns as pole stars! Sirius will become the South Pole Star some 60 thousand years from now (around the year 66270 B.C.). In that time, Sirius will come to within 1.6 degrees of the South Celestial Pole.
Fr.: du Sud, méridional
Of or pertaining to the south.
M.E., O.E. suðerne, from suð, → south, + -erne, suffix denoting direction.
Daštari, relating to daštar, → south.
Fr.: Croix du Sud
Popular name for the constellation → Crux. Its four brightest stars form a distinctive cross shape.
Fr.: hémisphère sud
The transit of a celestial object, especially the Sun, across the meridian due south of the observer.
Verbal noun from → south (v.).