Fr.: valeur absolue
For any → real number a, the non-negative value of
a without regard to its sign; denoted by |a|. Same as
→ modulus. The absolute value of a is always either
→ positive or → zero,
but never negative. The absolute value of a number may be thought of
as its → distance from zero. The following rules hold:
Fr.: valeur discrète
A quantity that has certain magnitudes and does not represent a → continuous variable.
Fr.: valeur propre
1) Math.: The one of the → scalars λ such
that T(v) = λv, where T is a linear → operator
on a → vector space, and v is an
→ eigenfunction; → value.
Fr.: valeur espérée
Statistics: Same as → mathematical expectation, → expectation.
→ expectation; → value.
half-value layer (HVL)
Fr.: couche de demi-atténuation
The thickness of material required to reduce the intensity of an → X-ray beam to one half of its initial value. The HVL is an indirect measure of the photon energies of a beam.
→ half; → value; → layer; → attenuation.
mean value theorem
farbin-e arzeš-e miyângin
Fr.: théorème des accroissements finis
1) If f(x) is a continuous function on the interval from a to b, then:
Fr.: valeur nominale
The assigned, specified, or intended value of a quantity.
Fr.: notation positionnelle
A mathematical notation system in which the → numerals get different values depending on their position relative to the other numerals. Same as → positional notation and → positional number system.
arzeš-e riše-ye câruši-ye miyângin
Fr.: écart quadratique moyen, écart type
Statistics: The square root of the arithmetic mean of the squares of the deviation of observed values from their arithmetic mean.
Fr.: valeurs standard
Photometric values of selected stars in a standard system.
Fr.: valeur de vérité
The quality of a logical → proposition (or a formal → symbol) which describes the relation of a proposition to → truth. The traditional → formal logic admits only two contradictory values, → true or → false. In → symbolic logic, more specifically in → polyvalent logics, other truth values are used (such as possible, impossible, undetermined, probable, random, etc.).
Math.: Magnitude; quantity; a numerical quantity assigned to a mathematical symbol.
M.E., from O.Fr. value "worth, value," noun use of feminine p.p. of valoir "be worth," from L. valere "be strong, be well, be of value."
Arzeš, verbal noun of arzidan "to be worth," arzân "worthy; of small value, cheap," arj "esteem, honour, price, worth;" Mid.Pers. arz "value, worth," arzidan "be worth," arzân "valuable;" Av. arəjaiti "is worth," arəja- "valuable," arəg- "to be worth;" cf. Skt. arh- "to be worth, to earn," árhant- "worthy person;" Gk. alphanein "to bring in as profit," alphein "to ear, obtain;" Lith. algà "salary, pay;" PIE base *algwh- "to earn; price, value."