An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 502

Fr.: Barnard   

From Edward Emerson Barnard (1857-1923) American astronomer who made several obserational discoveries.

Barnard's loop
  گردال ِ بارنارد   
gerdâl-e Bârnârd

Fr.: boucle de Barnard   

A very faint nebular shell of huge size enveloping the central portion of Orion.

Named after → Barnard, who discovered the loop in 1895; → loop.

Barnard's star
  ستاره‌ی ِ بارنارد   
setâre-ye Bârnârd

Fr.: étoile de Barnard   

A → red dwarf in the constellation → Ophiuchus discovered in 1916 by E.E. Barnard, that until 1968 had the largest → proper motion of any star. It moves on the sky 10.3 arcseconds per year, which means that it travels the equivalent of a lunar diameter every 180 years. It is the second nearest star system to the Sun.

In honor of → Barnard; → star.

fešâr- (#)

Fr.: baro-   

A prefix meaning → pressure used in the formation of compound words, such as → baroclinic, → barometer, → barotropic.

Baro- combining form of Gk. baros "weight;" cognate with Pers. bâr "weight," gerân "heavy;" cf. Skt. guru, L. gravis; PIE *gwere- "heavy;" L. brutus "heavy, dull, stupid, brutish;" Skt. bhara- "burden, load," bharati "he carries;" PIE *bher- "carry, give birth."

Fešâr-, → pressure.


Fr.: barocline   

Of, pertaining to, or characterized by → baroclinicity. Sometimes called → barocline.

baro-; → -cline; → -ic.

baroclinic instability
  ناپایداری ِ فشارشیبی   
nâpâydâri-ye fešâršibi

Fr.: instabilité barocline   

1) A type of instability occurring within a rapidly → rotating star where non-axisymmetric motions can separate surfaces of constant pressure from → equipotential surfaces.
2) A hydrodynamic instability associated with a baroclinic layer of the atmosphere. It arises from temperature variation along the pressure surfaces. Baroclinic instability is associated with the vertical → shear of the mean flow, which is related to the horizontal temperature gradient by the thermal wind equation. Instabilities in a baroclinic region grow by converting potential energy associated with the mean horizontal temperature gradient into kinetic energy through ascending warm air and descending cold air (Rasmussen & Turner (eds.), Polar Lows, Cambridge Univ. Press, 2003).

baroclinic; → instability.


Fr.: baroclinie   

The state of stratification in a fluid in which surfaces of constant pressure do not coincide with those of constant density, but intersect. Where baroclinicity is zero, the fluid is → barotropic. Same as baroclinity.

baroclinic; → -ity.

fešârsanj (#)

Fr.: baromètre   

Instrument for measuring the atmospheric pressure. It is used in determining height above sea level and predicting changes in weather.

baro- + → -meter.

barometric law
  قانون ِ فشارسنجی، ~ فشارسنجیک   
qânun-e fešârsanji, ~ fešârsanjik

Fr.: loi barométrique   

A law which describes the vertical pressure distribution in the lower parts of Earth's atmosphere. The atmospheric pressure decreases exponentially from any reference surface as the altitude increases.

barometer; → law.


Fr.: barotrope   

In a fluid, conditions where surfaces of constant pressure are parallel to surfaces of constant temperature. This state is equivalent to zero → baroclinicity.

baro-; → -tropic.

barotropic gas
  گاز ِ فشارگرد   
gâz-e fešârgard

Fr.: gaz barotrope   

A gas whose density is a function solely of pressure.

barotropic; → gas.

barotropic instability
  ناپایداری ِ فشارگرد   
nâpâydâri-ye fešârgard

Fr.: instabilité barotrope   

A hydrodynamical instability that arises when the horizontal → shear gradient becomes very large. Barotropic instabilities grow by extracting kinetic energy from the mean flow field.

barotropic; → instability.


Fr.: barotropie   

A state of a fluid in which the surfaces of constant density coincide with surfaces of constant pressure (isobaric).

barotropic gas.

  میله‌دار، میله‌ای   
miledâr, milei

Fr.: barré   

Having a bar like structure.


barred Magellanic spiral
  مارپیچ ِ میله‌دار ِ ماژلانی   
mârpic-e mile-dâr-e Mâželâni

Fr.: spirtale barée magellanique   

A transitional class of object between the classic spiral galaxies and true irregular systems. The → Large Magellanic Cloud, the nearest and best studied example of the class, is, contrary to popular opinion, not an irregular galaxy. The LMC and other members of the SBm class have definite structural signatures. They are generally dominated by a pronounced asymmetric bar -- one that is offset from the optical center of the galaxy -- with a nascent spiral arm emanating from one end. As is the case with irregular galaxies, the optical centers of SBm type systems are not particularly special places. Disk systems later than Sc characteristically lack a central stellar concentration in addition to having weak spiral structure; this is true of SBm-type galaxies. SBm galaxies are typically very active in their star formation activity, often containing a large star-forming complex situated at one end of the bar. Beyond these general trends there is a tremendous amount of dispersion in physical properties within the SBm class, particularly in the strength of the spiral structure. At one extreme are the "one-armed" spirals such as NGC 3664 and NGC 4027 which are dominated by single, looping spiral arm. On the other hand NGC 4861 shows little evidence of spiral structure and it is dominated by a large star-forming complex at one end of its bar. The class smoothly leads to the Barred Magellanic irregulars (IBm) which show no indication of spiral structure (Wilcots et al. 1996, AJ 111, 1575).

Magellanic; → spiral; → galaxy.

barred spiral galaxy
  کهکشان ِ مارپیچ ِ میله‌دار، ~ ~ میله‌ای   
kahkašân-e mârpic-e miledâr

Fr.: galaxie spirale barrée   

A → spiral galaxy that exhibits a bar-shaped structure in its nucleus. → galactic bar.

barred; → spiral; → galaxy.

barrel distortion
  چولگی ِ چلیکی   
cowlegi-ye celiki (#)

Fr.: distortion en barillet   

A defect in an optical system in which magnification decreases with distance from the optical axis, whereby the image of a square appears barrel-shaped. Opposite of → pincushion distortion.

Barrel, M.E. barel, from O.Fr. baril; → distortion.

Cowlegi, → distortion; celiki, relating to celik "barrel".

varqé (#)

Fr.: barrière   

General: Anything that prevents passage or blocks.
Physics: 1) A region where the potential energy is greater than the total energy of a particle, whereby the particle cannot go through.
2) The depletion layer of a P-N junction in a diode.

O.F. barrière "obstacle," from V.L. *barraria, from *barra "bar, barrier."

Varqé, from varq "a mound, a dam" + nuance suffix. Varq is probably related to Av. vâra- "barrage," vara- "enclosure," var- "castle," Mid.Pers. var "enclosure," from Av. root var- "to cover, to conceal;" variants: barq (Torbat Heydariyei), valgâ (štiyâni), var (Qomi); cf. Skt. vatra- "a dike, a dam,"varana- "rampart, wall," from vr- "to obstruct, close, cover, hide; to choose."

Barringer Crater
  لاوک ِ برینگر   
lâvak-e Barringer

Fr.: cratère Barringer   

Same as → Meteor Crater.

Names after Daniel Barringer (1860-1929), American geologist, who bought the Crater in 1903, convinced that it was made by a huge → meteorite; → crater.

gerânigâh (#)

Fr.: barycentre   

The center of mass of a system of bodies.

From Gk. barus "heavy," → bar, + → center.

Gerânigâh, from gerâni "weight;" cognate with Gk. barus, → bar, + gâh "place."

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