An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 763
  ده‌بر، ده‌گوش   
dahbar (#), dahguš (#)

Fr.: décagone   

A ten-sided → polygon. A decagon that is equilateral and equiangular is called a regular decagon. Each angle of a regular decagon is 144°. The central angle subtending any side is 36°. The ratio of the radius to the side of a regular decagon forms the → golden ratio.

deca-; → -gon.

  ۱) تباهیدن؛ ۲) تباهی، فروپاشی   
1) tabâhidan (#); 2) tabâhi (#), forupâši (#)

Fr.: 1) se désintegrer, se désexciter; 2) désintegration, désexcitation   

1a) To become decomposed.
1b) Of a radioactive nucleus, to disintegrate spontaneously into one or more different nuclei, accompanied by the emission of → alpha particles, → beta particles, → positrons, and/or → gamma rays.
2a) Decomposition.
2b) The → transition of a system from an → excited state to a less excited one. Radiative decay refers to the process when the energy difference between the states is taken away by radiation. Likewise, collisional decay is when the energy difference is removed by a target during a collision.
2c) Of a spacecraft, a gradual decrease in the radius of its orbit over time, caused by aerodynamic drag of the atmosphere and other forces. The rate of orbit decay rises as the spacecraft falls and encounters increasing atmospheric density, eventually resulting in reentry.
alpha decay; → beta decay; → dark matter decay; → decay chain; → decay constant; → decay mode; → decay product; → decay time; → inverse beta decay; → Ohmic decay time; → orbit decay; → radioactive decay; → turbulence decay.

From O.Fr. decair, from V.L. *decadere "to fall off," from L. cadere "to fall," PIE base *kad- "to fall" (cf. Pers. Gilaki katan "to fall," ba.ka.tam "I fell," dakatan "to fall (in a marsh, in a pit)," vakatan "to fall from tiredness, be exhausted," fakatan "to fall from (lose) reputation," Pers. Laki: katen "to fall," kat "he fell," beko "fall!," Pers. Tabari: dakətə "fallen," dakətən "to crash down," dakə "stray cow," Arm. chacnum "to fall").

Tabâhidan, verbal form of tabâhi, noun form of tabâh "spoiled, ruined, destroyed," Mid.Pers. tapâh "spoiled, destroyed." Maybe related to Mod.Pers. tâb "affliction, pain, torment; heat, burning," tab "fever," tâbidan, tâftan "to shine," tafsidan "to become hot," Av. tāp-, taf- "to warm up, heat," tafsat "became hot," tāpaiieiti "to create warmth," cf. Skt. tap- "to spoil, injure, damage; to suffer; to heat, be/become hot," tapati "burns," L. tepere "to be warm," tepidus "warm," PIE base *tep- "warm."

decay chain
  زنجیره‌ی ِ تباهی   
zanjire-ye tabâhi

Fr.: chaîne de désintégration   

A series of nuclear decays produced by successive → daughter products, when the daughters are themselves → radioactive. For example, the decay chain N1N2N3→ ... in which the parent nuclide N1 decays to the daughter N2, which in turn decays to N3. Each → radionuclide in the decay chain can → branch to more than one daughter.

decay; → chain.

decay constant
  پایای ِ تباهی   
pâyâ-ye tabâhi

Fr.: constante de désintégration   

A constant of proportionality occurring in the formula expressing spontaneous → decay of → radionuclides. The number of atoms decaying is given by N = N0e-kt, where N0 is the number of nuclei in the given volume of the substance at instant t = 0, N is the number of nuclei at t, and k is decay constant. Decay constant is related to → half-life by τ = ln2/k, roughly 0.693/k.

decay; → constant.

decay mode
  ترز ِ تباهی، مد ِ ~   
tarz-e tabâhi, mod-e ~

Fr.: mode de désintégration   

A possible type of decay of a → radionuclide or → elementary particle. In general, a given particle may decay by more than one decay mode. Usually the number of decay modes is one or two. There are, however, → nuclides which have many decay modes; for example the nuclide 11Li has seven decay modes.

decay; → mode.

decay product
  فر‌آورده‌ی ِ تباهی   
farâvarde-ye tabâhi

Fr.: produit de désintégration   

A → stable nuclide or → radioactive nuclide formed by the → disintegration of a → radioactive isotope, either directly or as a result of a → decay chain. Also called → daughter product. For example, the decay product of 238U is 206Pb, after passing through the following chain: 238U → 234Th (4.5 billion yr) → 234Pa (24 days) → 234U (1 min) → 230Th (245,000 yr) → 226Ra (76,000 yr) → 222Rn (1,600 yr) → 218Po (3.8 d) → 214Pb (3 m) → 214Bi (27 m) → 214Po (160 microseconds) → 210Pb (22 yr) → 210Bi (5 d) → 210Po (138 d) → 206Pb.

decay; → product.

decay time
  زمان ِ تباهی   
zamân-e tabâhi (#)

Fr.: temps d'amortissement   

The time required for the amplitude of a vibrating system to decrease to 1/e of its initial value.
Of an orbiting object, its lifetime in a non stable orbit.

decay; → time.

  واشتابیدن؛ واشتاباندن   
vâšetâbidan (#); vâšetâbândan (#)

Fr.: décélérer   

(v.intr.) To slow down. ( To decrease the velocity of.

From → de- + (ac)celerate, from → accelerate.

Vâšetâbidan, from vâ-de- + šetâbidan, → accelerate.

vâšetâb (#)

Fr.: décéleration   

The act or process of moving, or of causing to move, with decreasing speed. Sometimes called negative acceleration.

Verbal noun of decelerate.

deceleration parameter
  پارامون ِ واشتاب   
pârâmun-e vâšetâb

Fr.: paramètre de décéleration   

A parameter designating the rate at which the expansion of the Universe would slow down owing to the braking gravitational effect of the matter content of the Universe. It is expressed by: q(t) = -R(t)R ..(t)/R .2(t), where R(t) represents the size of the Universe at time t. See also → expansion parameter; compare with → acceleration parameter.

deceleration; → parameter.

desi- (#)

Fr.: déci-   

Prefix used in the metric system to mean on-tenth.

From Fr. déci-, from L. decimus "tenth," from decem "ten," cf. Av. dasa "ten," Mod.Pers. dah "ten," Gk. deka, Skt. dasa, PIE *dekm (Dan. ti, Du. tien, Ger. zehn, E. ten, Fr. dix).

Desi-, from Fr. déci-, as above.

decibel (dB)
desibel (#)

Fr.: décibel   

A dimensionless unit used to express relative difference in power or intensity, usually between two acoustic or electric signals. It is defined as n [dB] = 10 log (P1/P0), with → natural logarithm. One decibel equals one-tenth of a → bel (B).

deci-; → bel (B).


Fr.: décider   

To make a choice or come to a conclusion about something. → decision, → rule of decision.

M.E. deciden, from O.Fr. decider, from L. decidere "to decide, determine," literally "to cut off," from → de-"off" + caedere "to cut, chop, beat, hew."

Vâsunidan, from vâ- "off, away," → de-, + sun "to cut;" cf. Kurd. Soriani su, sun "to sharpen, whet;" Kurd. Kurmanji (prefixed ha-, contraction of *ham-) hasun "to sharpen, whet;" Mod.Pers. sân "whetstone," variants fasân, afsân, awsân; Av. si-, sā- "to cut;" cf. Skt. śā- "to sharpen, whet;" + -idan infinitive suffix.


Fr.: décideur   

Someone who decides, or something that allows to determine.

decide; → -er.

dahdahi (#)

Fr.: décimal   

Referring to or based in the number 10; relating to tens or tenths.

M.L. decimalis "of tithes or tenths," from L. decimus "tenth," from decem, → ten.

Dahi , of or relating to dah, → ten; dahdahi literally "ten by ten."

decimal fraction
  برخه‌ی ِ دهدهی   
barxe-ye dahdahi

Fr.: fraction décimale   

A fraction expressed by using → decimal representation, as opposed to a vulgar fraction. For example, 2/5 is a vulgar fraction; 0.40 is a decimal fraction.

decimal; → fraction.

decimal logarithm
  لگاریتم ِ دهدهی   
logâritm-e dahdahi

Fr.: logarithme décimal   

common logarithm.

decimal; → logarithm.

decimal number system
  راژمان ِ عددهای ِ دهدهی   
râžmân-e adadhâ-ye dahdahi

Fr.: système des nombres décimaux   

A system of numerals for representing real numbers that uses the → base 10. It includes the digits from 0 through 9.

decimal; → system.

decimal place
  رقم پس از جداگر، ~ ~ ~ ممیز   
raqam pas az jodâgar, ~ ~ ~ momayez

Fr.: décimale, chiffre après la virgule   

The position of a digit to the right of a → decimal point written in decimal notation. In 0.032, for example, 0 is the first decimal place, 3 is the second decimal place, and 2 is the third decimal place.

decimal; → place.

Raqam, → digit; pas, → after; jodâgar, momayez, → decimal point.

decimal point
  جداگر، ممیز   
jodâgar, momayez (#)

Fr.: séparateur décimal, signe décimal   

A symbol (usually a point or dot) used to separate the integer part from the fractional part of a → decimal number.

decimal; → point.

Jodâgar, → separator.
Momayez, from Ar. mumaiyiz "distinguisher, discerner, separator."

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