An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 731
  گداختن، گدازیدن   
godâxtan, godâzidan (#)

Fr.: fondre   

( To become liquefied by warmth or heat, as ice, snow, butter, or metal. ( To reduce to a liquid state by warmth or heat; to fuse.

M.E. melten, O.E. meltan "become liquid;" cf. O.N. melta "to digest;" Gk. meldein "to melt," L. mollis "soft, mild."

Godâxtan, godâz- "to melt," from Mid.Pers. vitâxtan, vitâcitan "to melt," from Av. vi-taxti- "flowing away, melting," from vi- "apart, away from, out" (O.Pers. viy- "apart, away;" cf. Skt. vi- "apart, asunder, away, out;" L. vitare "to avoid, turn aside") + tak- "to run, to flow," taciāp- "flowing water," tacinti (3pl.pers.act.) "to flow," tacar- "course," tacan "current, streaming;" Mod.Pers. tâz-, tâxtan "to run; to hasten; to assault," tâzi "swift (greyhound)," tak "running, rush;" Mid.Pers. tâz-, tâxtan "to flow, to cause to walk," tc- "to flow, to walk," tag "running, attack," tâzig "swift, fast;" Khotanese ttajs- "to flow, to walk;" cf. Skt. tak- "to rush, to hurry," takti "runs;" O.Ir. tech- "to flow;" Lith. teketi "to walk, to flow;" O.C.S. tešti "to walk, to hurry;" Tokharian B cake "river;" PIE base *tekw- "to run; to flow."

forugodâxt (#)

Fr.: fusion du cœur de réacteur   

A severe accident in a nuclear reactor which is caused by a major failure in the reactor cooling circuit leading to the melting of the reactor core. Without coolant, the core would overheat so that the uranium fuel would melt. If the core continued to heat up, the steel walls of the core would also melt. If the molten core escaped from the containment housing of the reactor, large amounts of highly radioactive materials would be released into the atmosphere. The radioactive contamination of the air, water, and soil can have disastrous consequences for life.

melt; down, M.E. doun, from O.E. dune "downward," short for adune, ofdune, from a-, of "off, from" + dune "hill."

Forugodâxt, from foru- "down, downward; below; beneath," as in forurixtan, forunešastan, foruraftan (Mid.Pers. frôt "down, downward;" O.Pers. fravata "forward, downward;" cf. Skt. pravát- "a sloping path, the slope of a mountain") + godâxt past stem of godâxtan, godazidan → melt.

melting point
  نقطه‌ی ِ گداز   
noqte-ye godâz (#)

Fr.: point de fusion   

The temperature at which a solid changes to a liquid.

melting; → point.

hamvand (#)

Fr.: membre   

A person or a thing that is part of a group body; e.g. a star which belongs to a cluster.

From M.E., from O.Fr. membre, from L. membrum "limb, member of the body, part."

Hamvand, literally "linked, joined together," from ham- "together, with; same, equally, even" (Mid.Pers. ham-, like L. com- and Gk. syn- with neither of which it is cognate. O.Pers./Av. ham-, Skt. sam-; also O.Pers./Av. hama- "one and the same," Skt. sama-, Gk. homos-; originally identical with PIE numeral *sam- "one," from *som-. The Av. ham- appears in various forms: han- (before gutturals, palatals, dentals) and also hem-, hen-) + vand "joined, tied," from bastan, vastan "to bind, shut" (O.Pers./Av. band- "to bind, fetter," banda- "band, tie" (cf. Skt. bandh- "to bind, tie, fasten;" PIE *bhendh- "to bind;" Ger. binden; E. bind).

hamvandi (#)

Fr.: adhésion   

The state of being a member.

From → member + -ship a native E. suffix of nouns denoting condition, character, office, skill, etc., from M.E., O.E. -scipe; akin to shape.

hamvandi, from hamvand, → member, + -i condition, character suffix.

membership function
  کریای ِ هموندی   
karyâ-ye hamvandi

Fr.: fonction d'adhésion   

One of several functions used in the → fuzzification and → defuzzification steps of a → fuzzy logic system to map the → nonfuzzy input values to → fuzzy linguistic terms and vice versa. A membership function is used to quantify a linguistic term.

membership; → function.

  برمیدن، از بر کردن   
barmidan, az bar kardan

Fr.: mémoriser   

To commit to memory, learn by heart.

From memor-, → memory, + → -ize.

Barmidan, from barm, → memory; az bar kardan, literally "to do from memory," from az preposition, bar, contraction of barm, kardan "to do, make," → -ize.


Fr.: mémoire   

1) The faculty of the mind to preserve and recall past sensations, thoughts, knowledge, etc.
2) In computers and recording instruments, any device into which information can be introduced and later extracted.

M.E. memorie, from L. memoria, from memor "mindful, remembering;" cf. Gk. mermera "care," merimna "anxious thought, sorrow," martyr "witness;" Pers. šomârdan "to count;" Mid.Pers. ôšmârtan, ôšmurtan "to reckon, calculate, enumerate, account for;" from Av. base (š)mar- "to have in mind, remember, recall," pati-šmar- "to recall; to long for," hišmar-; Skt. smar- "to remember, become aware," smarati "he remembers."

Barm "memory," variant bar (az bar kardan "to memorize"), bir, vir, from Mid.Pers. varm "memory," variants vir, vârom "mind, conscience;" from Av. vārəma, vārəm "according to one's wishes," from var- "to choose."

memory capacity
  گنجایش ِ برم   
gonjâyeš-e barm

Fr.: capacité de mémoire   

The amount of information which can be retained in a memory, usually expressed as the number of words which can be retained. For comparison of different memories this number is expressed in bits.

memory; → capacity.

Mendeleev's table
  جدول ِ مندلیف   
jadval-e Mendeleev (#)

Fr.: tableau de Mendeleïev   

See → periodic table.

periodic table.

  ماهک، کوژ-کاو   
mâhak, kuž-kâv

Fr.: ménisque   

A → lens with a crescent-shaped section; a → concavo-convex lens.

Mod.L. meniscus, from Gk. meniskos "lunar crescent," diminutive of mene, → moon.

Mâhak, diminutive of mâh, → moon.
Kuž-kâv "convexo-concave," → convex; → concave.

Menkalinan (Beta Aurigae)
  منکب ذی العنان، شانه‌ی ِ ارابه‌ران   
Mankeb-zel-enân, šâne-ye arâbe-rân

Fr.: Menkalinan   

A multiple star of magnitude V = 1.90 which is situated in the → Auriga constellation at 81 → light-years away. Other main designations: HR 2088 and HD 40183. Although the third brightest star of the constellation, it bears "Beta" designation. Menkalinan is composed of two main components, which make up a → spectroscopic binary. The combined apparent magnitude varies over a period of 3.96 days between +1.89 and +1.94, as every 47.5 hours one of the stars partially eclipses the other. Both are metallic-lined → subgiant stars of spectral type A2 IV. Each is about 48 times more luminous than the Sun and has roughly the same mass and radius (2.6 times that of the Sun). There is a third component of magnitude 14.1, which is separated from the main pair by 13'', corresponding to a projected distance of 330 → astronomical units.

From Ar. Al Mankib dhi'l 'Inan (منکب ذی العنان) "the Shoulder of the One Who Holds the Reins," which is the rendition of the Gk. mythology character Auriga (Charioteer).

Menkent (Theta Centauri)

Fr.: Menkent (θ Centauri)   

A → giant star of → apparent visual magnitude +2.06 located in the southern constellation → Centaurus. It has a → spectral type of K0 III and lies 61 → light-years away. Also called Haratan.

Menkent, corruption of Ar. Mankib "shoulder," short for Mankib al-Qanturis (منکب القنطورس ) "shoulder of Centaurus."


Fr.: Table   

The Table Mountain. A faint constellation near the south celestial pole, at 5h right ascension, 80° south declination. It contains part of the → Large Magellanic Cloud, and its brightest star is of magnitude 5.1. Abbreviation Men; genitive Mensae.

First introduced by the French astronomer Nicolas Louis de Lacaille (1713-1762) under the name Mons Mensae, from L. mons "mountain" + mensa "table" to refer to Table Mountain in South Africa. Lacaille made important early observations of the southern sky from the Cape Town region.

Mizkuh, from miz "table," originally "preparations for entertaining a guest; guest;" Mid.Pers. mêzd "offering, meal" + kuhmountain.

  منتی، منتال   
menti, mentâl

Fr.: mental   

Of or pertaining to the → mind.

M.E., from M.Fr. mental, from L. mentalis "of the mind," from mens (genitive mentis) "mind," from PIE root *men- "to think."

Menti, mentâl, adjectives of ment, → mind; → -al.


Fr.: mentalité   

1) Mental capacity or endowment.
2) Mental capacity or endowment (

mental; → -ity.

  ۱) ایات؛ ۲) ایاتیدن   
1) ayât; 2) ayâtidan

Fr.: 1) mentionner; 2) mention   

1) To refer briefly to; name, specify, or speak of (
2) A direct or incidental reference; a mentioning (

M.E. mencioun, from O.Fr. mencion "mention, memory, speech," from L. mentionem "a calling to mind, a speaking of," from root of Old L. minisci "to think," related to mens "mind," from PIE root *men- "to think;" cf. Pers. man, mân "thought, to think," → mind.

Ayât, from Mid.Pers. ayât, ayâd "remembrance, recollection, memory;" Mod.Pers. yâd.

Merak (β Ursae Majoris)
Merâq (#)

Fr.: Merak   

A blue → dwarf star of → spectral type A1 with an → apparent magnitude of 2.37 in the constellation → Ursa Major. It lies 79 → light-years away and has a → luminosity almost 60 times solar, and a mass about triple that of the Sun. Although Merak ranks fifth in brightness in the → Big Dipper, it received the Beta designation from Bayer, who lettered the Dipper's stars from front to back.

From Ar. al-Maraqq (المراق) "the soft parts of the belly, the loins."

Mercator telescope
  تلسکوپ ِ مرکاتور   
teleskop-e Mercator

Fr.: télescope de Mercator   

A 1.2 m semi-robotic telescope located at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on La Palma Island (Canary Islands, Spain). It is operated by the staff of the Institute of Astronomy, University of Leuven (Belgium). The telescope uses two modern instruments HERMES: a → high-resolution optical → spectrograph, and MAIA, a three-armed camera equipped with large → charge-coupled device (CCD)s and optimized for more specific rapid variability studies. The main science drivers of the research performed on the basis of Mercator data are related to a wide range of variable phenomena with a clear focus on stellar astrophysics, in particular the stellar internal structure by means of → asteroseismology.

Named after the Flemish cartographer Gerardus Mercator (1512-1594), who studied and taught at the University of Leuven before moving to Duisburg (Germany)

  ۱) تیر؛ ۲) جیوه، سیماب   
1) Tir; 2) jivé, simâb

Fr.: Mercure   

1) The closest → planet to the → Sun and one of five planets visible with the naked eye. The → greatest elongation of Mercury is about 28°, making it visible at most about 112 minutes after sunset or before sunrise. It lies at a mean distance of about 0.39 → astronomical units from the Sun. Mercury is just 4,879 km in diameter, about 2.6 times smaller than the Earth. Its → orbital period is 87.97 Earth days. Mercury has a high → density, 5.4 g cm-3, with only the Earth having a higher density among the planets. This is largely due to Mercury being composed mainly of heavy metals and rock. One → solar day on Mercury lasts the equivalent of 176 Earth days while the sidereal day (the time for 1 rotation in relation to a fixed point) lasts 59 Earth days. Mercury is nearly → tidally locked to the Sun and over time this has slowed the rotation of the planet to almost match its orbit around the Sun. Mercury also has the highest orbital → eccentricity of all the planets with its distance from the Sun ranging from 46 to 70 million km. Mercury has just 38% the → gravity of Earth, this is too little to maintain an atmosphere against → solar winds, which blow it away. The surface of Mercury which faces the Sun has temperatures of up to 427°C, whilst on the alternate side this can be as low as -173°C. Mercury's core has more iron than any other planet in the → solar system. This has to do with its formation and early life. If the planet formed quickly, increasing temperatures of the evolving Sun could have vaporized much of the existing surface, leaving only a thin shell.
2) (lower case): Metallic chemical element, also called quicksilver; symbol Hg (from L. hydrargyrum "liquid silver"). → Atomic number 80; → atomic weight 200.59; → melting point -38.842°C; → boiling point 356.58°C. Mercury was first recognized as a chemical element (in the modern sense) by the French chemist Antoine L. Lavoisier (1743-1794).

From L. Mercurius "Mercury," the Roman god, originally a god of tradesmen and thieves, from merx "merchandise."

1) Mid.Pers. Tîr the name of the planet Mercury, O.Pers. proper noun *Tira-dāta- "given by Tir" (Hellenized Tiridates), Mid.Pers. Tîr.dât the name of three Parthian Kings; Av. Tīro.nakaθwa-.
2) Jivé, variant živé, from Mid.Pers. zivik, zivandag "alive, living," from zivastan "to live," zivižn "life;" O.Pers./Av. gay- "to live," Av. gaya- "life," gaeθâ- "being, world, mankind," jivya-, jva- "aliving, alive;" cf. Skt. jiva- "alive, living;" Gk. bios "life;" L. vivus "living, alive," vita "life;" O.E. cwic "alive;" E. quick; Lith. gyvas "living, alive;" PIE base *gweie- "to live."
Simâb "liquid silver," from sim "silver" (Mid.Pers. âsīm) + âb, → water.

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