An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 731

Fr.: modifier   

To change somewhat the form or qualities of; alter partially; amend.
To reduce or lessen in degree or extent; moderate; soften:

From O.Fr. modifier, from L. modificare "to impose a rule or pattern, regulate, restrain," from modus "measure, rhythm, song, manner" PIE base *med-/*met- "to measure, limit, consider, advise, take appropriate measures" + root of facere "to make"

Vâtarzidan, from vâ- prefix denoting "reversal, opposition; separation; repetition; open; off; away" (variant of bâz-, from Mid.Pers. abâz-, apâc-; O.Pers. apa- [pref.] "away, from;" Av. apa- [pref.] "away, from," apaš [adv.] "toward the back;" cf. Skt. ápāñc "situated behind") + tarz "mode, manner" + -idan infinitive suffix.

degarâhangidan (#)

Fr.: moduler   

General: To regulate by or adjust to a certain measure or proportion; tone down. Physics: To alter the value of some parameter characterizing a periodic oscillation. → modulation.

From L. modulatus pr.p. of modulari "to regulate, measure off properly," from modulus "small measure," diminutive of modus "measure, manner," → mode.

Degarâhangidan, from degar "other, another," denoting change, variant digar (Mid.Pers. dit, ditikar "the other, the second;" O.Pers. duvitiya- "second," Av. daibitya-, bitya- "second;" Skt. dvitiya- "second," PIE *duitiio- "second") + âhang "melody, pitch, tune, modulation" (ultimately from Proto-Iranian *āhang-, from prefix ā- + *hang-, from PIE base *sengwh- "to sing, make an incantation;" cf. O.H.G. singan; Ger. singen; Goth. siggwan; Swed. sjunga; O.E. singan "to chant, sing, tell in song;" maybe cognate with Gk. omphe "voice; oracle") + -idan infinitive suffix.

modulated wave
  موج ِ دگر‌آهنگیده   
mowj-e degarâhangidé (#)

Fr.: onde modulée   

A combination of two or more waves resulting in the production of frequencies not present in the original waves, the new frequencies being usually the sums and differences of integral multiples of the frequencies in the original waves.
A wave which varies in some characteristic in accordance with the variations of a modulating signal. Compare continuous wave. See modulation

Modulated, p.p. of → modulate; → wave.

degarâhangeš (#)

Fr.: modulation   

General: The modification of some property of a phenomenon by another distinct phenomenon.
Physics: Variation of some characteristic (amplitude, phase, or frequency) of a radio wave, called the carrier wave, in accordance with instantaneous values of another wave, called the modulating wave. → amplitude modulation; → frequency modulation.
Optics: A synonym for contrast, particularly when applied to a series of parallel lines and spaces imaged by a lens.

Verbal noun of → modulate.

modulation transfer function (MTF)
  کریای ِ تراوژ ِ دگر‌آهنگش   
karyâ-ye tarâvaž-e degarâhangeš

Fr.: fonction de transfert de modulation   

A measure of the ability of an optical system to reproduce (transfer) various levels of detail from the object to the image, as shown by the degree of contrast (modulation) in the image. → optical transfer function.

modulation; → transfer; → function.


Fr.: modulateur   

Any device for effecting the process of modulation.

from L. modulator, from → modulate + -tor a suffix forming personal agent nouns from verbs.

Vâhangâr, from vâhang, → modulation, + -âr, contraction of âvar agent noun of âvardan "to bring; to cause, produce" (Mid.Pers. âwurtan, âvaritan; Av. ābar- "to bring; to possess," from prefix ā- + Av./O.Pers. bar- "to bear, carry," bareθre "to bear (infinitive)," bareθri "a female that bears (children), a mother;" Mod.Pers. bordan "to carry;" Skt. bharati "he carries;" Gk. pherein; L. fero "to carry").

  مدول، ترزول   
modul, tarzul

Fr.: module   

A distinct and separable element of a spacecraft or space station.

From M.Fr. module, from L. modulus "small measure," diminutive of modus "measure, manner," → mode.

Modul, loan as above. Tarzul, from tarzmode + -ul, → -ula.

Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA)

Fr.: MESA   

An open-source, one-dimensional astrophysical code which is capable of calculating the evolution of stars in a wide range of environments. It works according to the → Henyey method and uses many modules that deal with various aspects of the theoretical models, such as the → equation of state (EOS), → nuclear reaction networks, → chemical composition, micro-physics, or macro-physics. The EOS and corresponding opacities or nuclear networks are provided in tabulated formats and can be selected by the user, while the micro-physics and macro-physics can be controlled by inlists of relevant parameters and settings (Paxton et al. 2015, ApJS 220, 15 and references therein).

module; → experiment; → stellar; → astrophysics.


Fr.: module   

A real, positive quantity that measures the magnitude of some number. For instance, the modulus of a complex number is the square root of the sum of the squares of its components. Often it means, simply, the numerical ("absolute") value of an algebraic quantity.

From L. modulus, → module.

Peymun, variant of peymâné "a measure either for dry or wet goods; a bushel, cup, bowl," from peymudan, peymâyidan "to measure," from Mid.Pers. patmudan, paymudan "to measure (against)," from *pati-māya-. The first element *pati- "against, back" (cf. Mod.Pers. pâd- "agaist, contrary to;" Mid.Pers. pât-; O.Pers. paity "agaist, back, opposite to, toward, face to face, in front of;" Av. paiti; Skt. práti "toward, against, again, back, in return, opposite;" Pali pati-; Gk. proti, pros "face to face with, toward, in addition to, near;" PIE *proti). The second element from *mā- "to measure;" O.Pers./Av. mā(y)- "to measure;" cf. Skt. mati "measures," matra- "measure;" Gk. metron "measure;" L. metrum; PIE base *me- "to measure." Apart from peymâné, several other terms in Mod.Pers. are related to this second element, which occurs also as mun, mân, man, mâ, mu, and mây: pirâmun "perimeter," âzmun, âzmây- "test, trial," peymân "measuring, agreement," man "a measure weighing forty seers"), nemudan, ne- "to show, display," âdan, âmây- "to prepare."

modulus of rigidity
  پیمون ِ سخت‌پایی   
peymun-e saxtpâyi

Fr.: module de rigidité   

Same as → shear modulus.

modulus; → rigidity.

moli (#)

Fr.: molaire   

Describing a quantity of substance that is proportional to its molecular weight. Relating to a → mole.

mole + → -ar.

molar concentration
  دبزش ِ مولی   
dabzeš-e moli

Fr.: concentration molaire   

Of a gas included in the composition of a → gas mixture, the ratio of the number of moles of this gas to the total number of moles of all the gases in the mixture. Same as mole fraction and mole-fraction concentration.

molar; → concentration.

molar heat capacity
  گنجایش ِ گرمایی ِ مولی   
gonjâyeš-e garmâyi-ye moli

Fr.: capacité thermique molaire   

The → heat capacity of one → mole of substance: Cμ = μ C, where μ is the → molecular weight and C the → specific heat capacity. The molar heat capacity of water is practically 18 cal/mole.C°.

Molar, adj. of → mole; → heat; → capacity.

molar heat of vaporization
  گرمای ِ بخارش ِ مولی   
garmâ-ye boxâreš-e moli

Fr.: chaleur de vaporisation molaire   

The amount of heat energy required to vaporize 1 mole of a liquid at its → boiling point, usually expressed in kJ/mol.

molar; → heat; → vaporization.

  مول، ملکول-گرم، اتم-گرم   
mol, molekul-geram, atom-geram

Fr.: mole   

The → SI unit of amount of → substance; symbol mol. One mole contains exactly 6.022 140 76 × 1023 elementary entities. This number is the fixed numerical value of the → Avogadro constant, NA, when expressed in the unit mol-1.

From Ger. Mole, short for Molekül, from Fr. → molecule.

molekuli (#)

Fr.: moléculaire   

Of or pertaining to or caused by molecules.

From → molecule + -ar variant of the adjective-forming suffix → -al, joined to words in which an l precedes the suffix.

Molekuli, from molekulmolecule + -i adj. suffix.

molecular band
  باند ِ مولکولی   
bând-e molekuli (#)

Fr.: bande moléculaire   

A band of molecular origin present in a spectrum. See for example → cyanogen band, → S star.

molecular; → band.

molecular cloud
  ابر ِ مولکولی   
abr-e molekuli (#)

Fr.: nuage moléculaire   

A relatively dense, cold region of interstellar matter where the atoms are primarily bound together as molecules rather than free atoms or ionized particles. Molecular clouds represent the coldest and densest phase of the → interstellar medium. They consist primarily of → molecular hydrogen (H2), with temperatures in the range 10-100 K. Molecular hydrogen is not directly observable under most conditions in molecular clouds. Therefore, almost all current knowledge about the properties of molecular clouds has been deduced from observations of molecules such as → carbon monoxide (CO), which have strong emission lines mainly in the → millimeter portion of the → electromagnetic spectrum. So far 129 molecular species have been detected in molecular clouds, among which complex organic molecules. → Dust grains in molecular clouds play a crucial role in the formation of molecules. Molecular clouds are the principal sites where stars form. → giant molecular cloud; → Orion molecular cloud.

molecular; → cloud.

molecular clump
  گوده‌ی ِ مولکولی   
gude-ye molekuli

Fr.: grumeau moléculaire   

One of many compact and dense sub-structures in a → molecular cloud. Their typical sizes are about 0.5-10 → parsecs and their masses range from about 50 to 103 → solar masses. The gas temperatures are about 10-20 K, and the number densities from about 103 to 104 cm-3.

molecular; → clump.

molecular diffusion
  پخش ِ مولکولی   
paxš-e molekuli

Fr.: diffusion moléculaire   

A mixing process in a → fluid caused by the → random relative motions due to → Brownian motion of the individual particles. See also → eddy diffusion.

molecular; → diffusion.

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