An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



<< < -oi obj obs obs occ odd OH Ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi > >>

Number of Results: 412
setam (#)

Fr.: oppression   

1) The exercise of authority or power in a burdensome, cruel, or unjust manner.
2) An act or instance of oppressing or subjecting to cruel or unjust impositions or restraints.
3) The state of being oppressed (

M.E. oppressioun, from O.Fr. opresser "oppress; torment," from M.L. oppressare, from L. opprimere "press against, press down;" from op, variant of ob "against" + premere "to press, hold fast."

Setam, from Mid.Pers. sthmbk / stambag / "oppressive; obstinate," related to sitabr "strong, firm," staft "hard; firm, strong; fierce," Pers. seft "firm, hard, tight;" sitanbah "strong, robust, bold;" Av. aša.stəmbana- "having the support/firmness of aša;" Lith stembti "to oppose;" Gk. astemphes "unshakable."


Fr.: opter   

To make a choice; choose (usually followed by for).

From Fr. opter "to choose," from L. optare "to choose, desire, wish for," from L. optare "to desire, choose," from PIE root *op- "to choose, prefer."

Optidan, from L. optare, as above.

  اپتانه، اپتمند   

Fr.: optatif   

Of, relating to, or constituting a verbal mood that is expressive of wish or desire.

From M.Fr. optatif, from L. optativus, from optatus, p.p. of optare, → opt, + -ivus, → -ive.

Optâné, optmand, from opt present stem of optidan, → opt, + adj. suffixes -âné, -mand. -yi.

  ۱) نوری، نوریک؛ ۲) دیدگانی   
1) nuri, nurik; 2) didgâni

Fr.: optique   

1) Of or pertaining to the eye or sight.
2) Same as → optical.

From M.Fr. optique, from M.L. opticus "of sight or seeing," from Gk. optikos "of or having to do with sight," from optos "seen, visible," from op-, root of opsesthai "be going to see," related to ops "eye," from PIE *okw- "eye/see."

1) Nuri, nurik, from nur, → light + -i, -ik adj. suffix → -ic.
2) Didgâni, related to didgân "eyes," plural of didé "eye; seen," from didan "to see" (Mid.Pers. ditan "to see, regard, catch sight of, contemplate, experience;" O.Pers. dī- "to see;" Av. dā(y)- "to see," didāti "sees;" cf. Skt. dhī- "to perceive, think, ponder; thought, reflection, meditation," dādhye; Gk. dedorka "have seen").

optic axis
  آسه‌یِ نوری   
âse-ye nuri

Fr.: axe optique   

The direction in a doubly refracting crystal in which light is propagated without double refraction.

optic; → axis.

  ۱) نوری، نوریک؛ ۲) دیدگانی   
1) nuri, nurik; 2) didgâni

Fr.: optique   

1) Of, pertaining to, or applying optics or the principles of optics.
2) Of or pertaining to sight or vision; visual; of or pertaining to the eye.

From → optic + → -al.


optical aberration
  بیراهشِ نوری   
birâheš-e nuri

Fr.: aberration optique   

An imperfection in the imaging properties of a lens or mirror. The main aberrations are → chromatic aberration, → spherical aberration, → coma, → astigmatism, → field curvature, → distortion.

optical; → aberration.

optical activity
  ژیرندگیِ نوری   
žirandegi-ye nuri

Fr.: activité optique   

The property possessed by some substances and their solutions of rotating the plane of vibration of → polarized light. When a beam of → linearly polarized light is sent through an optically active substance, such as crystalline quartz and sugar solution, the direction of vibration of the emerging linearly polarized light is found to be different from the original direction. Those which rotate the → plane of polarization to the right, for an observer looking in the incoming beam, are called → dextrorotatory or right handed; those which rotate it to the left, → levorotatory or left handed. Optical activity may be due to an asymmetry of molecules of a substance (solutions of cane sugar) or it may be a property of a crystal as a whole (crystalline quartz).

optical; → activity.

optical analysis
  آنالسِ نوری   
ânâlas-e nuri

Fr.: analyse optique   

The mathematical evaluation of an optical system to determine its basic optical properties and image quality characteristics.

optical; → analysis.

optical autocorrelator
  خودهم‌باز‌آنگرِ نوری   
xod-hambâzângar-e nuri

Fr.: autocorrélateur optique   

An instrument used to test lenses by utilizing the → optical transfer function. It consists of a HeNe laser, a beamsplitter and two mirrors.

optical; → autocorrelator.

optical axis
  آسه‌یِ نوری   
âse-ye nuri (#)

Fr.: axe optique   

Line passing through the optical center and the center of curvature of a → spherical mirror or → lens. Same as → principal axis.

optical; → axis.

optical bench
  میز ِ نوریک، ~ نورشناختی   
miz-e nurik, ~ nuršenâxti

Fr.: banc optique   

A track or table on which sources, lenses, mirrors, and other optical components can be mounted and moved. It is used in optics experiments.

optical; bench, M.E., from O.E. benc "long seat;" cf. Da. bænk, M.Du. banc, O.H.G. banch.

Miz "table," originally "preparations for entertaining a guest; guest;" Mid.Pers. mêzd "offering, meal;" nurik, nuršenâxti, → optical.

optical center
  مرکزِ نوری   
markaz-e nuri (#)

Fr.: centre optique   

Of a thin lens, a point situated at the geometrical center of the lens, through which an incident ray passes without being deviated.

optical; → center.

optical component
  همنه‌ی ِ نوریک   
hamne-ye nurik

Fr.: composante optique   

Any device such as a → lens, → prism, → mirror, and/or other similar objects used in an → optical system.

optical; → component.

optical counterpart
  همتایِ نوری   
hamtâ-ye nuri

Fr.: contrepartie optique   

An astronomical object with usually weak emission in the → visible found to be the optical representation of the object radiating chiefly in other → wavelengths of the → electromagnetic spectrum.

optical; → counterpart.

optical density
  چگالیِ نوری   
cagâli-ye nuri

Fr.: densité optique   

The transmittance of a point on a photographic negative equal to the log to the base 10 of the reciprocal of the transmittance through the negative at that point.

optical; → density.

optical depth
  ژرفایِ نوری   
žarfâ-ye nuri

Fr.: profondeur optique   

1) A measure of how much radiation is absorbed when traveling through a medium (such as the atmosphere of a star or the interstellar medium) from the source to a given point. It depends on the type of medium and the frequency of radiation. It is defined as a dimensionless quantity λ = κλ ρ dx, where κλ is the extinction coefficient, ρ the density, and dx the path length.
2) The ratio of the intensity of radiation (light or radio waves) incident on a ring to that emerging from the opposite face of the ring, expressed as a natural logarithm. If the reduction in intensity is by a factors of e (= 2.718), the ring is said to have an optical depth of 1. Normal (or normalized) optical depth is optical depth corrected for oblique (non-vertical) viewing. In ring studies, the terms optical depth and optical thickness are generally used interchangeably. These terms generally refer to a particular wavelength (Ellis et al., 2007, Planetary Ring Systems, Springer).

optical; → depth.

optical double star
  ستاره‌یِ دوتایی ِ دیدگانی   
setâre-ye dotâyi-ye didgâni

Fr.: étoile double optique   

A pair of stars that lie close to each other in the sky by chance, but are not physically associated, in contrast to a true → binary star.

optical; → double star.

optical fiber
  فیبرِ نوری   
fibr-e nuri

Fr.: fibre optique   

A thin filament of drawn or extruded glass or plastic having a central core and a cladding of lower index material to promote internal reflection. It may be used singly to transmit pulsed optical signals (communications fiber) or in bundles to transmit light or images.

optical; → fiber.

optical illusion
  سفمانِ دیدگانی   
safmân-e didgâni

Fr.: illusion d'optique   

A perception of visual stimuli in which what is perceived is in a way different from the way it is in reality. Same as visual illusion.

optical; → illusion.

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