diffuse interstellar medium
madim-e andaraxtari-ye paxšidé
Fr.: milieu interstellaire diffus
The interstellar matter outside condensed molecular clouds. Diffuse interstellar medium consists of a hot intercloud medium, a warm intercloud medium, and a cold neutral medium with hydrogen atom densities nH ~ 0.003, ~ 0.25, and ~ 40 cm-3, and mean gas → kinetic temperatures Tk ~ 5 x 105, ~ 104, and 80 K, respectively.
→ diffuse; → interstellar; → medium.
diffuse molecular cloud
abr-e molekuli-ye paxšidé
Fr.: nuage moléculaire diffus
A type of → molecular cloud in which the → interstellar radiation field is sufficiently attenuated, so that the local fraction of → molecular hydrogen (H2) becomes substantial (> 0.1). However, enough interstellar radiation is still present to → photoionize any atomic carbon, or to → photodissociate → carbon monoxide (CO) such that carbon is predominantly still in the form of C+ (> 0.5). In steady state, diffuse molecular clouds must necessarily be surrounded by diffuse atomic gas, in order to provide the → shielding of radiation. This means that most sightlines that cross a diffuse molecular cloud will also cross → diffuse atomic gas (Snow & McCall, 2006, ARA&A 44, 367).
Fr.: nébuleuse diffuse
An irregularly shaped and low density interstellar cloud visible in the optical wavelengths.
Fr.: réflexion diffuse
Reflection of light from a rough or granular surface, which takes place in all directions due to the microscopic irregularities of the interface; opposed to → specular reflection.
→ diffuse; → reflection.
Fr.: transmission diffuse
Transmission accompanied by diffusion or scatter to the extent that there is no regular or direct transmission.
→ diffuse; → transmission.
A device used to scatter or disperse light emitted from a source.
From → diffuse + -er.
From paxš, present stem of paxšidan, → diffuse, + -andé or -gar (→ detector).
1) Movement of a gas or liquid as a result of the random thermal motion
of its atoms or molecules.
L. diffusionem, from stem of diffundere "scatter, pour out," from dif- "apart, in every direction," → dis-, + fundere "to melt, cast, pour out," from PIE *gheud-, from root *gheu- "to pour."
Paxš, verbal noun and stem of paxšidan→ diffuse.
Fr.: coefficient de diffusion
A factor of proportionality involved in the → diffusion equation. It may be defined as the amount of the quantity diffusing across a unit area through a unit concentration gradient in unit time. → magnetic diffusivity.
→ diffusion; → coefficient.
Fr.: équation de diffusion
An equation that expresses the time rate of change of a quantity in terms of the product of the diffusion coefficient and the → Laplacian operating on the quantity. For example the diffusion equation for temperature is: ∂T/∂t = D∇2T.
Fr.: région de diffusion
A narrow boundary layer above the solar → photosphere, between two magnetic field lines, where the plasma becomes demagnetized or unfrozen. The presence of a localized magnetic region is necessary for → magnetic reconnection.
Fr.: diffusif, de diffusion
Tending to diffuse; characterized by → diffusion.
paxšandegi, hamgar-e paxš
Fr.: coefficient de diffusion
1) The ability to permit or undergo diffusion.
hambaz-e do paxši
An instability involving two layers of fluid with opposite gradients of properties. Same as → fingering instability. See also → salt finger. Double-diffusive instabilities commonly occur in any astrophysical fluid that is stable according to the → Ledoux criterion, as long as the entropy and chemical stratifications have opposing contributions to the dynamical stability of the system. They drive weak forms of convection, and can cause substantial heat and compositional → mixing. Two cases can be distinguished. In fingering convection, entropy is stably stratified (∇ - ∇ad < 0), but chemical composition is unstably stratified (∇μ < 0); it is often referred to as → thermohaline convection by analogy with the oceanographic context in which the instability was first discovered. In oscillatory double-diffusive convection, entropy is unstably stratified (∇ - ∇ad > 0), but chemical composition is stably stratified (∇μ > 0); it is related to semiconvection, but can occur even when the → opacity is independent of composition (P. Garaud, 2014, arXiv:1401.0928).
Fr.: diffusion turbulente
A macroscopic process that occurs in a → fluid because of the relative motions induced by the non-uniform → turbulent motions of the fluid. Also known as turbulent → diffusion. Eddy diffusion may occur in an atmosphere if it is unstable against turbulence. It dominates the atmosphere below the homopause. See also → molecular diffusion.
parâš-e elekroni (#)
Fr.: diffraction des électrons
A diffraction phenomenon resulting from the passage of electrons through matter, analogous to the diffraction of visible light. This phenomenon is the main evidence for the existence of waves associated with elementary particles; → de Broglie wavelength.
→ electron; → diffraction.
Fr.: diffusion des éléments
An important physical process occurring in stars, which is the relative separation of the various → chemical elements. It is caused by → gravitational settling and → thermal diffusion, on the one hand, and → radiative levitation on the other. This process, which was described by Michaud (1970) to account for the abundance anomalies observed in → chemically peculiar → A star, is now recognized as occuring in all types of stars. Its influence on the observed → chemical abundances is extremely variable, however, due to competing macroscopic motions like → convective → mixing or rotation-induced → turbulence. In the Sun, no observable abundance anomalies are expected from element diffusion, as the time scale of the process is longer than the solar lifetime. However the small induced → depletion of → helium and → heavy elements by about 20% is detectable through → helioseismology. Such detections are more difficult in stars, as only global → oscillation modes can be detected, in contrast to the Sun, where local oscillations of the surface can be analyzed (Théado et al., 2005, A&A 437, 553).
Fr.: différentielle exacte
If N(x,y) is a → function of two → independent variables, then dN = (∂N/∂x)dx + (∂N/∂y)dy is the exact differential.
→ exact; → differential.
exact differential equation
hamugeš-e degarsâneyi-ye razin
Fr.: équation différentielle exacte
A → differential equation composed of → continuous → differentiable functions for which certain conditions are fulfilled. The equation M(x,y)dx + N(x,y)dy = 0 is called exact if M(x,y) and N(x,y) are continuous differentiable functions for which the following relationship is fulfilled: ∂M/∂y = ∂N/∂x, and ∂M/∂y and ∂N/∂x are continuous in some region.
→ exact; → differential; → equation.
first-order differential equation
hamugeš-e degarsâne-yi-ye râye-ye naxost
Fr.: équation différentielle du premier ordre
A → differential equation containing only the first → derivative. For example, dy/dx = 3x and 2y(dy/dx) + 3x = 5.
→ first; → order; → differential; → equation.
parâš-e Fresnel (#)
Fr.: diffraction de Fresnel
The diffraction effects obtained when either the source of light or observing screen, or both, are at a finite distance from diffracting aperture or obstacle. → Fraunhofer diffraction.
Named after Jean Augustin Fresnel (1788-1827), French physicist, a key figure in establishing the wave theory of light. His earlier work on interference was carried out in ignorance of that of Thomas Young (1773-1829), English physician and physicist, but later they corresponded and were allies; → diffraction.