An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 972
  ۱) آهنجیده؛ ۲) آهنجیده، چکیده   
1) âhanjidé (#); 2) âhanjidé (#), cekidé (#)

Fr.: 1) abstrait; 2) abstrait, sommaire   

1a) (adj.) A designation of what derives from → abstraction. Contrasted to → concrete.
1b) Dissociated from any concrete reality or specific instance.
2a) (n.) An abstract thing or state.
2b) A summary of a scientific article, document, speech, etc.

M.E., from L. abstractus "drawn away," p.p. of abstrahere "to draw away, withdraw," from abs- "away," from → ab- + trahere "to draw," → attract.

1) Âhanjidé, p.p. of âhanjidan, variants âhixtan, âxtan "to draw, pull, extract," → object.
2) Cekidé, literally "dropped, oozed out," from cekidan "to drop, distill, fall in small portions, as water," from cek, cekké "a drop, as water," probably an onomatopoeia.

abstract object
  بر‌آخت ِ آهنجیده   
barâxt-e âhanjidé

Fr.: objet abstrait   

An entity that does not exist in space or time and is not perceptible. Some examples are universals, sets, geometrical figures, and numbers.

abstract; → object.

âhanješ (#)

Fr.: abstraction   

1) The mental process in which an element or quality is separated from a total object. Also the result of this process.
2) Chemistry: → abstraction reaction.

Verbal noun from → abstract; → -tion.

abstraction reaction
  واژیرش ِ آهنجش   
vâžireš-e âhanješ (#)

Fr.: réaction d'abstraction   

Chemistry: A bimolecular chemical reaction that involves removal of an atom or ion from a molecule. For example, hydrogen abstraction from methane: CH4 + Cl → CH3 + HCl.

abstraction; → reaction.

yâvé (#)

Fr.: absurde   

Ridiculously senseless, illogical, or untrue; contrary to all reason. → reductio ad absurdum, → absurdity. See also → nonsense.

M.Fr. absurde, from L. absurdus "out of tune; foolish," from surdus "deaf, stupid, inaudible."

Yâvé, literally "unrelated speech," ultimately from *ui-vaka-, from *ui- "apart, away," → transit, + *vaka- "word, speech," → word.

yâvegi (#)

Fr.: absurdité   

The quality or state of being absurd; something that is absurd.

absurd + → -ity.

farâvâni (#)

Fr.: abondance   

1) The relative amount of a given → chemical element with respect to other elements.
2) The amount of an → isotope relative to other isotopes of the same element in a given sample. → overabundance; → underabundance.

M.E., from O.Fr. abundance, from L. abundantia "fullness," from abundare "to overflow," from L. → ab- "away" + undare "to surge," from unda "water, wave."

Farâvâni "abundance," from farâvân "abundant," from feré "much, more; increase; priority;" Mid.Pers. frêh "more, much;" O.Pers. fra- "before, forth;" Av. frā, fərrā "forth, forward;" PIE base *pro-; cf. L. pro "on behalf of, in place of, before, for;" Gk. pro- "before, in front of."


Fr.: académique   

1) Of or relating to a college, academy, school, or other educational institution, especially one for higher education.
2) Pertaining to areas of study that are not primarily vocational or applied, as the humanities or pure mathematics.
3) Theoretical or hypothetical; not practical, realistic, or directly useful (

academy; → -ic.


Fr.: académicien   

A member of an association or institution for the advancement of arts, sciences, or letters.

From Fr. académicien, from académic-, → academic, + -ian a suffix forming adjectives and nouns.

Farhangestânvand, from farhangestân, → academy, + -vand a suffix forming adjectives and agent nouns, → actual.

farhangestân (#)

Fr.: académie   

1) A group of authorities and leaders in a field of scholarship, art, etc., who are often permitted to dictate standards, prescribe methods, and criticize new ideas.
2) An association or institution for the advancement of art, literature, or science (

From Fr. Académie, from L. Academia, from Gk. Akademeia "grove of Akademos," a legendary Athenian of the Trojan War tales, whose estate, six stadia from Athens, was the enclosure where Plato taught his school.

Farhangestân, literally "site of culture and education," from farhang, → culture, + -estân suffix of place and time, → summer.

  شتابیدن، شتافتن؛ شتاباندن   
šetâbidan (#), šetâftan (#); šetâbândan (#)

Fr.: accélérer   

( To increase the velocity of a body; to cause to undergo acceleration.
(v.intr.) To increase in speed.

Verbal form of → acceleration.

accelerated motion
  جنبش ِ شتابدار   
jonbeš-e šetâbdâr (#)

Fr.: mouvement accéléré   

The motion of an object subject to → acceleration. Opposite to → uniform motion.

Accelerated, from → accelerate; → motion.

Jonbeš, → motion; šetâbdâr "accelerated," from šetâbaccelerate + dâr "having, possessor" (from dâštan "to have, to possess," Mid.Pers. dâštan, O.Pers./Av. root dar- "to hold, keep back, maitain, keep in mind;" cf. Skt. dhr-, dharma- "law;" Gk. thronos "elevated seat, throne;" L. firmus "firm, stable;" Lith. daryti "to make;" PIE *dher- "to hold, support").

šetâbandé (#)

Fr.: en accélération   

Moving or proceeding with → acceleration; e.g. → accelerating system; → accelerating Universe.

Verbal adj. from → accelerate.

accelerating expansion of the Universe
  سپانش ِ شتابنده‌ی ِ گیتی   
sopâneš-e šetâbande-ye giti

Fr.: expansion accélérée de l'Univers   

accelerating Universe.

accelerating; → expansion; → Universe.

accelerating system
  راژمان ِ شتابنده   
râžmân-e šetâbandé

Fr.: système en accélération   

A material system that is subject to a constant force in each and every one of its instantaneous points of trajectory.

accelerating; → system.

accelerating Universe
  گیتی ِ شتابنده   
giti-ye šetâbandé (#)

Fr.: univers en accélération   

The deduction based on the observation that the most distant → Type Ia supernovae are fainter than that expected from their → redshifts in a matter-only dominated expanding Universe. The faintness is attributed to larger distances resulting from an accelerating Universe driven by presence of a new component with strongly negative pressure. This component that makes the Universe accelerate is named → dark energy. The deceleration or acceleration of an expanding Universe, given by the general relativistic equation, is: R../R = -(4/3)πGρ(1 + 3w), where R is the linear → cosmic scale factor of the expanding Universe, G the → gravitational constant, ρ the mean density of the Universe, and w the → equation of state parameter representing dark energy. The expansion accelerates whenever w is more negative than -1/3. The Nobel Prize in Physics 2011 was awarded to the initiators of this concept, Saul Perlmutter, Brian P. Schmidt, and Adam G. Riess, for their discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae. See also the original paper: Perlmutter et al. 1999, ApJ 517, 565.

accelerating; → universe.

šetâb (#)

Fr.: accélération   

The rate at which the velocity of an object changes with time.

Acceleration, from accelerate, from L. accelerare "quicken," from → ad- "to" + celerare "hasten," from celer "swift" (cf. Skt. car, carati "to move, go, drive," Gk. keles "fast horse, horse race," Av. kar- "to walk, move, go around," Mod.Pers. cal, calidan "to move, to go, to walk" (jald? "quick, active, brisk"), Gilaki/Hamadâni jal "quick, fast,"Lori žil "motion, impulse"); PIE *kel- "to drive, set in swift motion."

Šetâb "quickness, haste, speed," Mid.Pers. ôštâp "hurry, haste," ôštâftan "to hurry, hasten," from *abi.stap-, from abi- " to; in addition to; against" + *stap- "to oppress," Arm. (loanword) štap "haste, trouble."

acceleration of gravity
  شتاب ِ گرانی   
šetâb-e gerâni

Fr.: accélération de la gravité   

The acceleration that an object experiences because of gravity when it falls freely close to the surface of a massive body, such as a planet. Same as → gravitational acceleration.

acceleration; → gravity.

acceleration parameter
  پارامون ِ شتاب   
pârâmun-e šetâb

Fr.: paramètre d'accéleration   

A measure of the departure from a constant rate of the acceleration of the Universe, expressed by: q(t) = R(t)R ..(t)/R .2(t), where R(t) represents the size of the Universe at time t. Traditionally, a negative sign is inserted in the above equation for the → deceleration parameter.

acceleration; → parameter.

šetâbgar (#)

Fr.: accélérateur   

A machine which accelerates charged atomic (ions of various elements) or subatomic particles (usually electrons and protons) to high energies. → cyclotron; → synchrotron.

Accelerator, from accelerate, → acceleration, + -or agent suffix, from M.E. -or, -our, from O.F. -eor, -eur, from L. -or.

Šetâbgar, from šetâbacceleration + -gar agent suffix, → -or.

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