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Planck era dowrâne Planck Fr.: ère de Planck The first 10^{43} seconds of the Universe's existence, when the size of the Universe was roughly the Planck length and during which quantum effects of gravity were significant. Also called Planck epoch. Our understanding of the Planck era is poor because theory which encompasses both quantum mechanics and general relativity is needed to be developed. 
Planck function karyâye Planck Fr.: fonction de Planck Same as → Planck's blackbody formula. 
Planck length derâzâye Planck (#) Fr.: longueur de Planck The size limit, l_{P} = √ (ħ G/ c^{3}), about 10^{33} cm, at which Einstein's notions of spacetime are supposed to break down, and space is predicted to become "foam like." 
Planck mass jerme Planck Fr.: masse de Planck 1) The unit of mass in Planck's system of physical units,
m_{P} = √ (ħ c/ G) = 2.176 × 10^{8} kg.
It is also the mass of a → black hole
whose → Compton wavelength is comparable to its
→ Schwarzschild radius. 
Planck postulate farâvase Planck Fr.: postulat de Planck The postulate that the energy of oscillators in a blackbody is quantized by E = nhν, where n = 1, 2, 3, ..., h is Planck's constant, and ν the frequency. 
Planck Satellite mâhvâreye Planck Fr.: Satellite Planck A European Space Agency (ESA) mission to map the full sky in the 30 GHz to 1 THz range and to measure the → anisotropies of the → cosmic microwave background (CMB) with a sensitivity set by fundamental limits, i.e. photon noise and contamination by foregrounds. It was launched on 14 May 2009, together with the → Herschel Satellite. Its observing position is a halo orbit around the L2 → Lagrangian point, some 1.5 million km from Earth. Its → Gregorianlike offaxis telescope has an effective aperture of 1.5 m and images the sky on two sets of feedhorns. The Low Frequency Instrument (LFI, at frequencies 30, 44, 70 GHz) amplifies with High Electron Mobility Transistors cooled at 20 K the radiation collected by 13 horns. The High Frequency Instrument (HFI, at 100, 143, 217, 353, 545, 857 GHz) detects the shorter waves with 52 bolometers cooled at only 0.1 degree above the → absolute zero. Both instruments can detect both the total intensity and polarization of photons. The Planck mission is intended to provide maps with a sensitivity of a few microKelvin and an angular resolution down to 5 arcmin, which is considered as a major improvement with respect to the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (→ WMAP) launched by the NASA in 2002. Planck will provide a major source of information relevant to several cosmological and astrophysical issues, such as testing theories of the early Universe and the origin of cosmic structure. It will also provide to astronomers 9 complete maps of the full sky at wavelengths from 0.3 mm to 1 cm, that complement the 4 maps taken by the → IRAS satellite in the 2.5 to 100 micrometer range. 
Planck scale marplee Planck Fr.: échelle de Plancck 1) A general term for anything roughly the size of the → Planck length. 
Planck spectrum binâbe Planck Fr.: spectrum de Planck Same as → blackbody spectrum. 
Planck time zamâne Planck Fr.: temps de Planck The time representing the → Planck length divided by the → speed of light. It is expressed by: t_{P} = (Għ/c^{5})^{1/2}≅ 5.4 x 10^{44} s, where G is the → gravitational constant, ħ is the → reduced Planck's constant, and c is the → speed of light. At the Planck time, the mass density of the Universe is thought to approach the → Planck density. 
Planck units yekâhâye Planck (#) Fr.: unités de Planck A set of → natural units in which the normalized units are: the gravitational constant, Planck's constant, the speed of light, the Coulomb constant, and Boltzmann's constant. 
Planck's blackbody formula disule siyah jesme Planck Fr.: formule du corps noir de Planck A formula that determines the distribution of intensity of radiation that prevails under conditions of thermal equilibrium at a temperature T: B_{v} = (2hν^{3} / c^{2})[exp(hν / kT)  1]^{1} where h is Planck's constant and ν is the frequency. 
Planck's constant pâyâye Planck (#) Fr.: constante de Planck 
Planck's radiation law qânune tâbeše Planck Fr.: loi du rayonnement de Planck An equation that expresses the energy radiated per unit area per unit time per unit wavelength range by a blackbody as a function of temperature. It is expressed by → Planck's blackbody formula. 
plane 1) hâmon (#); 2) taxt (#) Fr.: plan 1) (n.) a flat or level surface. 1) From L. plantum "flat surface," noun use of adj. planus "flat,
level, plain." 1) Hâmon, variant of hâmun "plain, level ground;" Mid.Pers. hâmÃ´n
"level, flat;" ProtoIranian *hāmavan,
from
*hāma "same, equally, even; together, with" (Mod.Pers./Mid.Pers.
ham; O.Pers./Av.
ham; cf. Skt. sam; also O.Pers./Av. hama
"one and the same;" Skt. sama; Gk. homos;
originally identical with PIE numeral *sam
"one," from *som. The Av. ham appears in various forms:
han (before gutturals, palatals, dentals) and also hem,
hen) + *van suffix.

plane figure šekle hÃ¢mon, ~ taxt Fr.: figure plane A twodimensional geometric figure. The points of the figure lie entirely in a plane. 
plane mirror âyeneye taxt (#) Fr.: miroir plan A mirror whose reflective surface is neither concave nor convex. 
plane of polarization hâmone qotbeš Fr.: plan de polarisation In a → linearly polarized light, a plane perpendicular to the → plane of vibration and containing the direction of propagation of light. It is also the plane containing the direction of propagation and the magnetic vector (H) of the electromagnetic light wave. → plane; → polarization. 
plane of rotation hâmone carxeš Fr.: plan de rotation For a rotating object, the plane → perpendicular to the → rotation axis. 
plane of the sky hâmone âsmân Fr.: plan du ciel An imaginary plane that is perpendicular to the → line of sight. 
plane of vibration hâmone šiveš Fr.: plan de vibration In a → linearly polarized light, a plane perpendicular to the → plane of polarization and containing the direction of propagation of light. It is also the plane containing the direction of propagation and the electric vector (E) of the electromagnetic light wave. → plane; → polarization. 
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