A coherent set of verified facts, propositions, or principles analyzed in their relation to one another and used to explain and predict phenomena, e.g. the → theory of relativity. The criterion of the scientific status of a theory is its → falsifiability, → refutability, or → testability. See also → hypothesis, → model.
From L.L. theoria, from Gk. theoria "contemplation, speculation, a looking at, things looked at," from theorein "to consider, view, look at," from theoros "spectator," from thea "a view" + horan "to see."
Negaré, from negar present stem of negaridan, negaristan "to look, observe;" Mid.Pers. nigeridan, niger-, nikiritan, nikir- "to look, to watch, to notice, to consider;" ultimately from Proto-Iranian *ni-kar-, from *ni- "down, in, into," → ni- (PIE), + *kar- "to observe, to consider;" cf. Av. kar- "to remember; to impress on memory;" Skt. kal- "to observe, consider," kalayati "considers, observes;" Mid.Pers. kartan "to establish; to declare; to found," (h)angârtan "to consider, to bear in mind, to regard as," us-kâritan "to consider, deliberate, discuss," sikâl, sigâl "thought;" Mod.Pers. engâridan, engâštan "to suppose," segâl "thought," segâlidan "to think, to resolve to injure, to deceive."
theory of everything (TOE)
negare-ye hamé ciz
Fr.: théorie du tout
theory of relativity
Fr.: théorie de la relativité
Any of several commercial units of heat energy, as one equivalent to 106 calories.
From Gk. therme "heat," → thermal.
Of, pertaining to, or caused by heat or temperature.
From M.Fr. thermal, from Gk. therme "heat," cognate with Pers. garm "warm," as below.
Garmâyi, adj. of garmâ "heat, warmth," from Mid.Pers. garmâg; O.Pers./Av. garəma- "hot, warm;" cf. Skt. gharmah "heat;" cognate with Gk. therme, thermos, as above; PIE *ghworm-/*ghwerm- "warm."
Fr.: agitation thermique
1) The random movement of the molecules of a substance, the energy of which is,
by kinetic theory, synonymous with the heat content of the substance.
Fr.: bremsstrahlung thermique
The emission of electromagnetic radiation from high temperature plasma, produced as electrons are deviated by positive ions. Same as → free-free emission
Fr.: conduction thermale
A process that occurs in a medium where a → temperature gradient exists: dQ = -κ(dT/dx)dA.dt, where dQ is the amount of heat passing through the time dt across an area dA in the direction of the normal x to this area and toward the reduction in temperature, κ is the → thermal conductivity, and (dT/dx) the temperature gradient.
Fr.: conductivité thermale
Fr.: détecteur thermique
A detector that senses the change of temperature due to the absorption of photons.
Fr.: diffusion thermique
A physical process resulting from → temperature gradients in stellar interiors, whereby more highly charged and more massive chemical species are concentrated toward the hottest region of the star, its center. Therefore, thermal diffusion and → gravitational settling tend to make heavier species sink relative to the light ones.
gosil-e garmâyi (#)
Fr.: émission thermique
Fr.: énergie thermique
1) The energy in the form of heat emitted by an object by virtue of its temperature.
tarâzmandi-ye garmâyi (#)
Fr.: équilibre thermique
In thermodynamics, the state of a system all parts of which have attained a uniform temperature and no net heat exchange is taking place between it and its surroundings. If two bodies are in thermal equilibrium, they have the same temperature. Thermal equilibrium is the central criterion of the → zeroth law of thermodynamics. See also → local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE).
Fr.: échappement thermique
An → atmospheric escape that occurs when irradiation from a parent star (or a very high heat flux from a planet interior) heats a planetary atmosphere, causing its molecules to escape to space. In basic models, the theory assumes neutral species with a → Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of velocities, which occurs when collisions between molecules are frequent. Thermal escape has two types: → Jeans' escape and → hydrodynamic escape (see, e.g., Catling, D. C. and Kasting, J. F., 2017, Escape of Atmospheres to Space, pp. 129-167. Cambridge University Press).
Fr.: excitation thermique
A process in which collisions that occur between particles cause atoms or molecules to obtain additional kinetic energy.
Fr.: expansion thermique
The change in dimensions of a material resulting from a change in temperature.
Fr.: gradient thermique
A vector quantity that depends on the distribution of temperature in three dimensions with respect to a given point. The magnitude and orientation of the maximum thermal gradient are given by: ∇T = (∂T/∂x)i + (∂T/∂y)j + (∂T/∂z)k, where T is the temperature distribution function in three dimensions, and i, j, and k are the unit vectors along the x, y, and z axes defining the temperature field. Same as → temperature gradient.
Fr.: saut thermique
A mechanism for the → transport of → electrons which occurs when the → Fermi level lies below a low but wide energy → barrier. The → tunneling probability across the barrier is considerably suppressed due to the width of the barrier. However, at higher temperatures, the electron can raise its energy with the assistance of a vibrational mode. The electron is said to hop from one side of the barrier to the other side via an intermediate state.
Fr.: inertie thermale
The tendency of a body to resist a change in temperature. A body with a low thermal inertia requires very few calories to change its surface temperature. A low thermal inertia material tends to be thermally insulating, so that the surface temperature changes readily, but those changes are not conducted to depth within the material (Ellis et al., 2007, Planetary Ring Systems, Springer).