arc of separation
Fr.: arc de séparation
The cyclic process in which interstellar matter is incorporated into newly formed stars, where it undergoes nuclear processing, is thus enriched with heavier elements, and then returns into the interstellar medium through supernova explosion or stellar winds to be used in the formation of a newer generation of stars.
Astration, from astrate, from astr-, → astro-, + noun-forming suffix -ation.
Setâreš, from setâridan (from setâré "star" + verb-making suffix -idan) + noun-builder -eš.
Fr.: accélération moyenne
Of a body traveling from A to B, the change of → velocity divided by the time interval: ā = (v2 - v1) / (t2 - t1).
Fr.: rapport baryon-photon
The → baryon number compared with the number of photons in the → Universe. The baryon-photon ratio can be estimated in a simple way. The → energy density associated with → blackbody radiation of → temperature T is aT4, and the mean energy per photon is ~kT. Therefore, the number density of blackbody photons for T = 2.7 K is: nγ = aT4/kT = 3.7 x 102 photons cm-3, where a = 7.6 x 10-15 erg cm-3 K-4 (→ radiation density constant) and k = 1.38 x 10-16 erg K-1 (→ Boltzmann's constant). The number density of baryons can be expressed by ρm/mp, where ρm is the mass density of the Universe and mp is the mass of the → proton (1.66 x 10-24 g). → CMB measurements show that the baryonic mean density is ρm = 4.2 x 10-31 g cm-3 (roughly 5% of the → critical density). This leads to the value of ~ 2 x 10-7 for the number density of baryons. Thus, the baryon/photon ratio is approximately equal to η = nb/nγ = 2 x 10-7/3.7 x 102 ~ 5 x 10-10. In other words, for each baryon in the Universe there is 1010 photons. This estimate is in agreement with the precise value of the baryon-photon ratio 6.14 x 10-10 derived with the → WMAP. Since the photon number and the baryon number are conserved, the baryon-photon ratio stays constant as the Universe expands.
Fr.: opération binaire
A mathematical operation that combines two numbers, quantities, sets, etc.,
to give a third. For example, multiplication of two numbers is a binary operation.
Fr.: rapport de branchement
A quantity used to describe a → radionuclide that has more than one → decay mode. For a particular decay mode, the ratio of the number of atoms decaying by that decay mode to the number decaying in total: BRi = ki/(k1 + k2 + ...) = ki/k, where k is → decay constant.
Fr.: étalonnage, calibration
1) The act or process of calibrating or the state of being calibrated.
Calibration, noun from → calibrate.
Kabizeš, noun from kabizidan, → calibrate.
Fr.: courbe d'étalonnage
An empirical curve obtained through appropriate exposures in order to determine the instrument's response. For example, a curve allowing the conversion of relative intensities of an observed object into absolute fluxes, or a curve relating the detector's pixel positions to wavelengths.
Fr.: erreur d'étalonnage
A systematic error in the constant values to be applied to a measuring instrument.
Fr.: pose d'étalonnage
An exposure obtained with an instrument mounted on the telescope using an artificial illuminating source in order to calibrate the instrument.
Fr.: lampe d'étalonnage
A lamp used for instrument calibration, such as an internal He-Ar arc for wavelength calibration or an external source of light placed in the telescope dome for flat-field exposures.
→ calibration; lamp, from O.Fr. lampe, L. lampas, from Gk. lampas "torch, lamp, light, meteor," from lampein "to shine."
Kabizeš, → calibration; lâmp, from Fr., as above.
šetâb-e markaz-goriz (#)
Fr.: accélération centrifuge
Of a point rotating in a circle round a central point, the outward acceleration away from the rotation axis. It corresponds to → centrifugal force. The centrifugal acceleration is given by ω x ω x r, or v2/r, where ω is → angular velocity, r the distance to the rotating axis, and v the → tangential velocity. The centrifugal and → centripetal accelerations are equal and opposite.
šetâb-e markaz-gerâ (#)
Fr.: accélération centripète
The rate of change of the → tangential velocity of a body moving along a circular path. The direction of centripetal acceleration is always inward along the → radius vector of the → circular motion. The magnitude of the centripetal acceleration is related to the → tangential velocity (v) and → angular velocity (ω) as follows: ac = v2/r = rω2. According to → Newton's second law, an object undergoing centripetal acceleration is experiencing a → centripetal force.
Fr.: séparation chimique
The physical processes that can cause certain elements to migrate in a → stellar atmosphere. These processes are thought to be important in creating the chemical peculiarities seen in → Am stars and → Ap stars.
Fr.: aberration chromatique
A defect in a lens that causes it to concentrate the various colors in a beam of light at various point, thus producing color fringes.
The act or process of working with another or others on a joint project.
From Fr. collaboration, noun of action from L. collaborare from → com- "with" + labore "to work."
1) hammarkazeš, dabzeš 2) dabzeš
1) The act of concentrating or the state of being concentrated.
Verbal noun from → concentrate.
A body comprising independent organizations that cooperate for a common purpose.
General: Arrangement of parts or elements in a composite object.
L.L. configuration, configuratio "similar formation," from L. configurare "to form from or after," from → com- + figurare "to form," from figura "figure."
Hampeykareš (verbal noun from hampeykaridan), from ham-, → com-, + peykar "figure, form, mould, body" + noun suffix -eš. Peykar from Mid.Pers. pahikar "picture, image," from O.Pers. patikara- "picture, (sculpted) likeness," from patiy "against" (Av. paiti, Skt. prati, Gk. poti/proti) + kara- "doer, maker," from kar- "to do, make, build," Av. kar-, Skt.. kr-; cf. Skt. pratikrti- "an image, likeness, model; counterpart."
1) The act of conglomerating; the state of being conglomerated.
Verbal noun of → conglomerate.