An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 1066
prehend
  نوتیدن   
nutidan

Fr.: préhender   

1) Philosophy: To apprehend with or without conscious formulation or cognition of the perceived object; to interact in time and space with an object or event (Oxford Dictionary, lexico.com).
2) (obsolete) To sieze.

From L. prehendere "to seize," from prae- "before," → pre-, + -hendere , from PIE root *ghend- "to seize, take," root of Gk. khandanein "to hold, contain;" Lith. godetis "be eager;" Welsh gannu "to hold, contain;" Russian za-gadka "riddle;" Old Norse geta "to obtain, reach; to be able to;" E. get.

Nutidan, from nut-, from Yaghnobi nôta "to take," from Sogd. niyât "to take, grasp," from Proto-Ir. *ni-yāta-, from *iam- "to take, to hold;" cf. Av. yam- (yās-) "to hold, keep;" O.Pers. yas- "to strech, reach out;" Skt. yam- "to hold, restrain" (Cheung 2007).

prehension
  نوتش   
nuteš

Fr.: préhension   

1) Zoology Psychology: The action of grasping or seizing.
2) Philosophy: An interaction of a subject with an event or entity which involves perception but not necessarily cognition (Oxford Dictionary, lexico.com).

Verbal noun of → prehend.

preliminary
  پیشاستانی   
pišâstâni

Fr.: préliminaire   

Preceding and leading up to the main part, matter, or business; introductory; preparatory (Dictionary.com).

From Fr. préliminaire, from M.L. praeliminaris, from L. prae- "before," → pre-, + limen "threshold."

Pišâstâni, literally "before the threshold," from piš, → pre-, + âstâni, of or pertaining to âstân, → threshold.

premise
  پیشپایه   
pišpâyé

Fr.: prémisse   

Logic: An initial → proposition or statement that is known or assumed to be → true and on which a logical → argument is based.

From M.E. premiss, from O.Fr. premisse, from M.L. premissa (propositio) "(the proposition) set before," feminine p.p. of L. praemittere "send or put before," from prae "before," → pre-, + mittere "to send," → mission.

Pišpâyé, from piš-, → pre-, + pâyé, → base.

preon
  پرءون   
preon

Fr.: préon   

In → particle physics, any of postulated "point-like" particles from which are composed → quarks and → leptons. In other words, preon models assume there is a more fundamental kind of particle than those so far known. Different preon models consider different numbers and different natures of the preons.

Coined by Jogesh Pati and Abdus Salam in 1974, from → pre- + → -on.

preplanetary nebula (PPN)
  پیش-میغ ِ سیاره‌ای   
piš-miq-e sayyâre-yi

Fr.: pré-nebuleuse planétaire   

A short-lived transition object between the → asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and → planetary nebula phases. See also → post-asymptotic giant branch star (post-AGB).

pre-; → planetary; → nebula. The more commonly used term, → protoplanetary nebula, is a misnomer and must be avoided. Indeed → protoplanetary is widely used to refer to disks around → pre-main sequence stars. Since the term → protoplanet is used to denote planets undergoing formation, the use of the term "protoplanetary nebula" to mean a completely different kind of object is an unfortunate choice (Sahai et al. 2005, ApJ 620, 948).

preposition
  پیشهل   
pišhel

Fr.: préposition   

A word used with a noun or pronoun to mark its relation with another word.

From L. praepositionem "a putting before," from praepositus, p.p. of praeponere "put before," from prae "before," → pre-, + ponere "put, set, place," → position.

Pišhel, from piš-, "before," → pre-, + hel-, helidan, heštan "to place, put," → leap.

preprint
  پیش‌چاپ   
pišcâp

Fr.: pré-publication   

An advance printing, usually of an article in a periodical.

pre-; → print.

prescientific
  پیشدانشی   
pišdâneši

Fr.: préscientifique   

Relating to a stage or time prior to the rise of modern science and to the application of the → scientific method.

pre-; → scientific.

prescribe
  پیش‌وشتن، پیش‌ویسیدن   
pišveštan, pišvisidan

Fr.: prescrire   

1) To lay down, in writing or otherwise, as a rule or a course of action to be followed; appoint, ordain, or enjoin.
2) Medicine: To designate or order the use of a medicine, remedy, treatment, etc. (Dictionary.com).

pre-; + scribe, → describe.

prescription
  پیش‌وشت، پیش‌ویس   
pišvešt, pišvis

Fr.: prescription, ordonnance   

1) An act of prescribing.
2) A direction, usually written, by the physician to the pharmacist for the preparation and use of a medicine or remedy. The medicine prescribed (Dictionary.com).

Verbal noun of → prescribe; → -tion.

prescriptive
  پیش‌وشتی، پیش‌ویسنده   
pišvešti, pišvisandé

Fr.: normatif   

1) That prescribes; giving directions or injunctions.
2) Depending on or arising from effective legal prescription, as a right or title established by a long unchallenged tenure (Dictionary.com).

prescribe; → -ive.

presence
  پیشاستی   
pišâsti

Fr.: présence   

The state or fact of being present.

Noun from → present.

present
  ۱) پیشاست، باشنده؛ ۲، ۳) پیشاست، کنون، کنونی   
1) pišâst, bâšandé; 2, 3) pišâst, konun, konuni

Fr.: présent   

1) Being, existing, or occurring at this time or now.
2) At this time; at hand; immediate.
3) Grammar: Noting an action or state occurring at the moment of speaking.

M.E., from O.Fr. present, from L. præsentem (nominative præsens) "present, immediate," from pr.p. of præesse "to be before, to be at hand," from præ- "before," → pre-, + esse "to be;" cf. Pers. ast "is," hastan, astan "to be;" O.P. ah- "to be," astiy "is;" Av. ah- "to be," astī "is;" Skt. as- "to be," ásti "is;" Gk. esti "is;" PIE base es- "to be."

Pišâst, on the model of L. præesse, as above, from piš, → pre-, + epenthetic -â- + ast "is," variants hast, hi, has (Qâyen), isâ (Rašt), a (Aftar), heye (Kurd.); Av./O.Pers. ah- "to be," Proto-Ir. *Hah- "to be," → existence.
Bâšandé agent noun from budan "to be;" → condition.
Konuni "presently," from konun, aknun "now, present," from *hak-nun, from *hak-, cf. Av. hakat- "at once, immediately" + nū- "now" (Mid/Mod.Pers. nun "now, at present"); Av. nūrəm "now;" O.Pers. nūram "now;" Skt. nú- "now, just, but," nūnám "now, at present, indeed;" Gk. nun "now;" L. nu- "now" (in nu-dis "the day after tomorrow"); Goth. nu "now;" O.E. nu; E. now; PIE base *nu- "now."

present day
  امروز   
emruz (#)

Fr.: époque actuelle, aujourd'hui   

Same as → present epoch, → today, → current cosmological epoch.

present; → day.

present epoch
  زیمه‌ی ِ کنونی   
zime-ye konuni

Fr.: époque actuelle   

Same as → present day, → today, → current cosmological epoch.

present; → epoch.

present participle
  پارگرته‌ی ِ کنون   
pârgerte-ye konun

Fr.: participe présent   

A → participle that indicates an ongoing action or state in the present.

present; → participle.

present-day mass function (PDMF)
  کریای ِ جرم ِ کنونی، ~ ~ امروزی   
karyâ-ye jerm-e konuni, ~ ~ emruzi

Fr.: fonction de masse actuelle   

The present number of stars on the → main sequence per unit logarithmic mass interval per square parsec. The PDMF is the basis for deriving the → initial mass function (IMF). This mass function is not corrected for stellar evolution nor losses through stellar deaths.

present; → day; → mass; → function.

preside
  فرنشتیدن   
farneštidan

Fr.: présider   

To occupy the place of authority or control, as in an assembly or meeting; act as president or chairperson (Dictionary.com).

pre-; → reside.

president
  فرنشتگار   
farneštgâr

Fr.: président   

1) The highest executive officer of a modern republic, as the Chief Executive of the United States (often initial capital letter).
2) An officer appointed or elected to preside over an organized body of persons (Dictionary.com).

preside; → -ent.

Farneštgâr, from farnešt, present stem of farneštidan, → preside, + agent noun suffix -gâr, → -or, on the model of âmuzgâr "teacher."

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