An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 1062

Fr.: pronom   

A grammatical element which replaces a noun previously mentioned.

From M.Fr. pronom, from L. pronomen, from → pro- "in place of" + nomen, → name.

Farânâm, literally "noun (put) forth (to replace)," from farâ- "forward, along, opposing, facing," → pro- + nâm, → name.


Fr.: prononcer   

1) To enunciate or articulate (sounds, words, sentences, etc.).
2) To utter or sound in a particular manner in speaking:

pro-; → announce.


Fr.: prononciation   

1) The act or result of producing the sounds of speech, including articulation, stress, and intonation, often with reference to some standard of correctness or acceptability.
2) An accepted standard of the sound and stress patterns of a syllable, word, phrase, etc.(

Verbal noun of → pronounce.


Fr.: preuve   

1) A particular piece of evidence that is sufficient to show or helps to establish a fact.
2) The establishment of the truth of anything; demonstration.
3) Math. Logic: A sequence of statements that establishes the truth of a proposition.

M.E. prove, prooff, prof, proufe, O.Fr. prueve, from L.L. proba "a proof," a back-formation from L. probare "to prove," from probus "worthy, good, upright," from PIE *pro-bhwo- "being in front," from → pro- + *bhu- "to be;" cf. Pers. budan "to be," → condition.

Âvin, on the model of Ger. Beweis "proof," from weisen "to show, point out;" O.E. witan "to see." âvin "to show, see," from intensive prefix â- + vin "to see" (as in a large number of dialects), variant bin, present stem of didan "to see;" Mid.Pers. wyn-; O.Pers. vain- "to see;" Av. vaēn- "to see;" cf. Skt. veda "I know;" Gk. oida "I know," idein "to see;" L. videre "to see;" Ger. weisen "to show," as above; PIE base *weid- "to know, to see."


Fr.: propagande   

Information, ideas, or rumors deliberately spread widely to help or harm a person, group, movement, institution, nation, etc. (

From N.L. propaganda, short for Congregatio de Propaganda Fide, "congregation for propagating the faith," a committee of cardinals established in 1622 by Gregory XV to supervise foreign missions, from L. propagare, → propagate.

Farâtucân, from prefix farâ-, → pro-, + tucân from tucidan, → propagate.

  ۱) توچیدن؛ ۲) توچاندن   
1) tucidan; 2) tucândan

Fr.: 1) se propager; 2) propager   

1) v.intr.: (of → electromagnetic waves, → compression waves, etc.) To travel through space or a physical → medium.
2) To create (an effect) at a distance, as by electromagnetic waves, compression waves, etc., traveling through space or a physical medium.

From L. propagatus, p.p. of propagare "multiply plants by layers, spread for sprouting, propagate, enlarge," from propag(es) "something set out, scion, slip," from → pro- "forth" + pag base of pangere "to fasten" + es noun suffix + -atus "-ate."

Tucidan, from several dialects: Malayeri "to scatter, disperse; to diffuse;" Lori tic "scattered, dispersed," ticene "to scatter, disperse; to diffuse;" Laki tvic "dispersed, scattered;" Aligudarzi tij "scattered, dispersed;" Borujerdi tuc "scatter," tucessan "to scatter, diffuse," tucesa "dispersed, scattered, diffused;" probably related to Proto-Ir. θrāš- "to scatter, spread, strew" cf. Yaghnobi côš- "to spread, scatter, sow," tiráš-, têráš-, tirayš-/tirášta "to fall (down, off); to become ill; to drop;" (+*ui- ?) Ossetic .I. irtasyn/irtæst, D. ærtasun/ærtast "to separate, distinguish; to take away; to choose;" Sogd. š'š "to scatter, disperse;" šyš- "to be scattered" (Cheung, 2007)


Fr.: propagation   

Physics: The act or process of propagating, especially the process by which a disturbance, such as the motion of electromagnetic or sound waves, is transmitted through a medium such as air or water. Linguistically related notions: → diffusion (پخش); → dispersion(پاشش); → scattering (پراکنش); → diffraction (پراش).

Verbal noun of → propagate.

propagation number
  عدد ِ توچش   
'adad-e tuceš

Fr.: nombre d'onde   

A parameter, denoted k = 2π/λ, that along with the → angular frequency, ω = 2πν, is used to express the equation of → simple harmonic motion, y = cos (ωt - kx + π/2). Same as → wave number.

propagation; → number.

pišrândan (#)

Fr.: propulser   

To drive, or cause to move, forward or onward.

From L. propellere "to push forward," from → pro- "forward" + pellere "to push, drive."

Pišrândan, from piš "before; in front," from Mid.Pers. pêš "before, earlier," O.Pers. paišiya "before; in the presence of" + rândan "to push, drive, cause to go," causative of raftan "to go, walk, proceed" (present tense stem row-, Mid.Pers. raftan, raw-, Proto-Iranian *rab/f- "to go; to attack").

pišrâné (#)

Fr.: propulseur   

A propelling agent. A substance, usually a mixture of fuel and oxidizer, for propelling a rocket.

From → propel + suffix -ant.

Pišrâné, from pišrândan, → propel.

saré (#)

Fr.: propre   

Belonging or pertaining exclusively or distinctly to a person, thing, or group. → proper mass; → proper motion; → proper time.

M.E., from O.Fr. propre, from L. proprius "one's own."

Saré "pure; principal."

proper distance
  اپست ِ سره   
apest-e saré

Fr.: distance propre   

A distance between two nearby events in the frame in which they occur at the same time. It is the distance measured by a ruler at the time of observation. Hence, for a cosmological time t, Dproper = DC . a(t), where DC is the → comoving distance, and a(t) is the → scale factor. In the present epoch a = a(tobs) = 1, and Dproper = DC.

proper; → distance.

proper mass
  جرم ِ سره   
jerm-e saré

Fr.: masse propre   

Same as → rest mass.

proper; → mass.

proper motion
  جنبش ِ سره   
jonbeš-e saré

Fr.: mouvement propre   

The apparent motion of a star across the sky (not including a star's parallax), arising from the star's velocity through space with respect to the Sun. Proper motion is usually tabulated in star catalogs as changes in right ascension and declination per year or century. See also: → proper motion distance.

proper; → motion.

proper motion distance
  دورای ِ جنبش ِ سره   
durâ-ye jonbeš-e saré

Fr.: distance mouvement propre   

The distance derived from the → proper motion of an object. If an object has a known → transverse velocity  u, and has an observed angular motion of dθ/dt, then the proper motion distance is defined as: d = u/(dθ/dt).

proper; → motion; → distance

proper subset
  زیرهنگرد ِ سره   
zirhangard-e saré

Fr.: sous-ensemble propre   

Of two sets A and B, the set A if it is contained in B (A ⊂ B) but is not equal to B (A ≠ B).

proper; → subset.

proper time
  زمان ِ سره   
zamân-e saré (#)

Fr.: temps propre   

In general relativity, the time as measured on a clock that travels with the observer in the same system. An accelerated clock will measure shorter time intervals between events than a non-accelerated clock between the same events. → twin paradox.

proper; → time.


Fr.: propriété   

1) General: An essential or distinctive attribute or quality of a thing.
2) Physics: A quantity, such as length, mass, pressure, temperature, or volume, that relates to the state of a system and can be expressed in numbers obtained from well-defined measurement operations.

From M.E. propriete "ownership, something owned, one's own nature," from M.Fr. propriété, from L. proprietas "ownership, property, propriety," literally "special character," noun of quality from proprius "one's own, special."

Dârâk "thing owned," from dâr present stem of dâštan "to have, to possess" + -âk (on the model of xorâk, pušâk, kâvâk). The first element dâštan, from Mid.Pers. dâštan, O.Pers./Av. root dar- "to hold, keep back, maintain, keep in mind;" Skt. dhr- "to to hold, keep, preserve," dharma- "law;" Gk. thronos "elevated seat, throne;" L. firmus "firm, stable;" Lith. daryti "to make;" PIE *dher- "to hold, support."


Fr.: proplyde   

A circumstellar disk of dense gas and dust surrounding a young newly formed star, a T Tauri star or Herbig star. In particular, an externally ionized protoplanetary disk seen in emission in the Orion Nebula. → silhouette disk.

Contraction of protoplanetarydisk.

barpâreš (#)

Fr.: proportion   

Comparative relation between things, sizes, quantities, numbers, parts, etc.
Math.: A statement of the equality of two ratios.

M.E. proporcio(u)n, from O.Fr. proportion, from L. proportio "comparative relation, analogy," from the phrase pro portione "according to the relation" (of parts to each other), from pro "for" + portio "part, shar."

Barpâreš, from bar- "on; up; upon; in; into; at; forth; with; near; before; according to" (Mid.Pers. abar; O.Pers. upariy "above; over, upon, according to;" Av. upairi "above, over," upairi.zəma- "located above the earth;" cf. Gk. hyper- "over, above;" L. super-; O.H.G. ubir "over;" PIE base *uper "over") + pâr "part, portion, piece" (variants pâréparré "portion, segment (of an orange)," pargâlé, "piece, portion; patch;" (dialects Kermâni pariké "portion, half;" Tabari perik "minute quantity, particle;" Lârestâni pakva "patch;" Borujerdi parru "patch"); Mid.Pers. pârag "piece, part, portion; gift, offering, bribe;" Av. pāra- "debt," from par- "to remunerate, equalize; to condemn;" PIE *per- "to sell, hand over, distribute; to assigne;" Gk. peprotai "it has been granted;" L. pars, as above; Skt. purti- "reward;" Hitt. pars-, parsiya- "to break, crumble") + -eš suffix.

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