An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 1347

Fr.: farfadet   

A very brief, predominantly red, luminous glow, that occurs in the → mesosphere. Sprites occur high above large → thunderstorms and last only a few milliseconds. They have a lump of light on top and numerous tendrils descending downward. Sprites can shoot about 90 to 95 km up into the atmosphere, reaching the → ionosphere, and extend 160 km across. They are very difficult to see, and for that reason were not reliably recorded until 1989. See also → elve; → blue jet.

Sprite "elf, fairy, eerie, ghost-like quality," so named by D. Sentman et al. (1995, Geophys. Res. Let, 22, 1205) because of the fleeting nature of sprites; M.E., from O.Fr. esprit "spirit," from L. spiritus "soul, vigor, breath," related to spirare "to breathe."

Farfadé, from Fr. farfadet, of dialectal origin, derived from fado "fairy."

  ۱، ۲، ۳، ۴، ۵) شخاک، ۱) مهمیز   
1, 2, 3, 4, 5) šaxâk, 1) mehmiz

Fr.: éperon   

1) A pointed device on the heel of a rider's boot used to urge on the horse.
2) A sharp horny part on the leg of some birds.
3) Geology: A lateral lower mountain ridge descending from the mountain or the main ridge crest.
4) Mining: A small vein branching from a main one.
5) → Orion Spur.

M.E. spur, from O.E. spura, spora "metal implement worn on the heel to goad a horse," akin to M.Du. spore, Du. spoor, O.H.G. sporo, Ger. Sporn "spur."

Šaxâk, from šax "hard ground, especially on the summit or at the skirt of a mountain; anything hard; a mountain," + noun/nuance suffix -âk.
Mehmiz "a spur, a goad," loan from Ar.



To emit particles, sparks, etc., forcibly or explosively, especially accompanied by sputtering sounds.

Originally "to spit with explosive sounds," cognate with Du. sputteren, W.Fris. sputterje.

Osparândan, literally "to throw out," from os- "out," → ex-, + parândan "to eject," transitive verb of paridan "to fly" (from Mid./Mod.Pers. par(r) "feather, wing," Av. parəna- "feather, wing;" cp. Skt. parna "feather," E. fern; PIE *porno- "feather").


Fr.: éjection par collision ionique   

The ejection of charged particles or atoms by a solid or liquid surface which undergoes collision with high-energy ions.

Verbal noun of → sputter.

bâdzad (#)

Fr.: rafale   

A sudden, violent gust of wind, often accompanied by rain, snow, or sleet. A sudden increase of the mean wind speed which lasts for several minutes at least before the mean wind returns to near its previous value. It is often accompanied by rain or snow.

Probably from a Scand. source (cf. Norw. skval "sudden rush of water," Sw. skvala "to gush, pour down").

Bâdzad, from bâd, → wind + zad past stem of zadan "to strike, beat; to do; to play an instrument" (Mid.Pers. zatan, žatan; O.Pers./Av. jan-, gan- "to strike, hit, smite, kill" (jantar- "smiter"); cf. Skt. han- "to strike, beat" (hantar- "smiter, killer"); Gk. theinein "to strike;" L. fendere "to strike, push;" Gmc. *gundjo "war, battle;" PIE *gwhen- "to strike, kill").

  چاروش، چهارگوش   
câruš, cahârguš

Fr.: carré   

1) A rectangle having all four sides of equal length.
2) The second power of a quantity, expressed as a2 = a × a, where a is the quantity. → inverse square law.

M.E., from O.Fr. esquire "a square, squareness," from V.L. *exquadra, from *exquadrare "to square," from L. → ex- "out" + quadrare "make square," from quadrus "a square," from quattuorfour.

Câruš, from Av. caθruša- "four sides (of a four-sided figure)", from caθru- "four," Mod.Pers. cahâr, câr "four" + uša- "angle," Mod.Pers. guš, gušé.

square degree
  درجه‌ی ِ چاروش   
daraje-ye câruš

Fr.: degré carré   

A solid angle whose cone is a tetrahedral pyramid with an angle between its edges equal to 1°. 1 square degree = 3.046 x 10-4 sr = 2.424 x 10-5 solid angle of a complete sphere.

square; → degree.

Square Kilometer Array (SKA)

Fr.: SKA   

An international project to construct a highly sensitive radio interferometer array operating between 0.15 and 20 GHz with an effective collecting area of one square kilometer. The number of individual telescopes will be 2000 to 3000. SKA will have a sensitivity 100 times higher than that of today's best radio telescopes and an angular resolution < 0.1 arcsec at 1.4 GHz. The site will be selected in 2012 and early science with Phase 1 is scheduled for from 2016 on. See also the SKA homepage.

square; → kilometer; → array.

square matrix
  ماتریس ِ چاروش   
matris-e câruš

Fr.: matrice carée   

A → matrix with equal numbers of → rows and → columns (i.e., an n × n matrix).

square; → matrix.

Square of Pegasus
  چهارگوش ِ پگاسوس   
Chahârguš-e Pegasus

Fr.: Carrée de Pégase   

A large → asterism of four stars, approximately square in shape, in the northern sky. Three of the stars, → Markab, → Scheat, and → Algenib, belong to the constellation → Pegasus. The fourth, → Alpheratz, was lost to Pegasus when the constellation boundaries were formalised, and now lies just within the borders of → Andromeda.

square; → Pegasus.

Chahârguš, → tetragon; → Pegasus.

square root
  ریشه‌ی ِ چاروش   
riše-ye câruš

Fr.: racine carée   

Quantity which when multiplied by itself produces another quantity.

square; → root.

square wave
  موج ِ چاروش   
mowj-e câruš

Fr.: onde carrée   

An oscillation which alternatively assumes, for equal lengths of time, one or two fixed values.

square; → wave.

squaring the circle
  چاروشش ِ پرهون، ~ ِ دایره   
cârušeš-e parhun, ~ dâyeré

Fr.: quadrature du cercle   

Same as → quadrature of the circle

square; → wave.

squaring the square
  چاروشش ِ چاروش   
cârušeš-e câruš

Fr.: quadrature du carré   

The mathematical problem of subdividing a square into a number of smaller squares, all of different sizes.

square; → square.


Fr.: squark   

In → supersymmetry theories, a hypothetical → boson super-partner of a → quark. See also → slepton.

s from → supersymmetry; → quark.

SS 433
SS 433

Fr.: SS 433   

A → close binary star lying at the center of the → supernova remnant W50, in → Aquila, about 18,000 → light-years away. The system consists of a normal → O star or → B star in a 13.087 day orbit around a compact object that is either a → neutron star or a → black hole. Material transferred from the normal star into an → accretion disk surrounding the compact object is ejected in two jets of ionized gas in opposite directions, at about a quarter of the speed of light. The system is also a periodic X-ray source. The jets are emitted in a cone with a half-angle of about 20°. The cone is inclined by 80° to the line of sight. The compact object precesses with a period of 164 days. This causes the projected angle of the jets to go through a 164 day cycle, giving the variation in the Doppler shifts.

Such called because this object carries number 433 in the Stephenson-Sanduleak catalog of stars with strong emission lines, compiled by Bruce Stephenson and Nicholas Sanduleak in 1977.

pâydâri (#)

Fr.: stabilité   

A condition in which a dynamical system slightly displaced from its equilibrium configuration always tends to return to this configuration. → instability, → instability strip.

Noun from adj. → stable.

pâydâr (#)

Fr.: stable   

Physics: 1) Having the ability to react to a disturbing force by maintaining or regaining position or condition.
2) Incapable of becoming a different isotope or element by radioactive decay.

M.E., from O.Fr. estable, from L. stabilis "firm, steadfast," literally "able to stand," from stem of stare "to stand;" cognate with Pers. istâdan "to stand" (Mid.Pers. êstâtan; O.Pers./Av. sta- "to stand, stand still; set;" Av. hištaiti; cf. Skt. sthâ- "to stand;" Gk. histemi "put, place, weigh," stasis "a standing still;" L. stare "to stand;" Lith. statau "place;" Goth. standan; PIE base *sta- "to stand").

Pâydâr "stable, firm" literally "having feet," from pâ(y) "foot; step" (Mid.Pers. pâd, pây; Av. pad- "foot;" cf. Skt. pat; Gk. pos, genitive podos; L. pes, genitive pedis; P.Gmc. *fot; E. foot; Ger. Fuss; Fr. pied; PIE *pod-/*ped-) + dâr present stem of dâštan "to have, hold, maintain, possess" (Mid.Pers. dâštan; O.Pers./Av. root dar- "to hold, keep back, maintain, keep in mind;" cf. Skt. dhr-, dharma- "law;" Gk. thronos "elevated seat, throne;" L. firmus "firm, stable;" Lith. daryti "to make;" PIE *dher- "to hold, support").

stable equilibrium
  ترازمندی ِ پایدار   
tarâzmandi-ye pâydâr (#)

Fr.: équilibre stable   

An equilibrium state of a system in which if a small perturbation away from equilibrium is applied, the system will return to its equilibrium state. An example is a pendulum hanging straight down. If it is pushed slightly, it will experience a force back toward the equilibrium position. It may oscillate around the equilibrium position for a while, but it will finally regain its equilibrium position. → unstable equilibrium.

stable; → equilibrium.

stable nuclide
  هسته‌وار ِ پایدار   
hastevâr-e pâydâr

Fr.: nucléide stable   

A nuclide that is not → radioactive and therefore does not spontaneously undergo → radioactive decay.

stable; → nuclide.

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