An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 1345
supersaturation
  ابر-انجالش   
abar-anjâleš

Fr.: super-saturation   

The process whereby the amount of → water vapor in the air exceeds that needed to → saturate. In other words, the condition of air in which the → humidity is above the level required for saturation at a given temperature (i.e. the → relative humidity is greater than 100%). When the temperature drops below freezing, this can lead to a situation where more water vapor is present in the air than the air can hold. At every temperature, there is a maximum amount of water vapor that can be supported in the air. The higher the temperature, the more water vapor can be accommodated. But if the air that is already at 100% relative humidity is cooled then it becomes supersaturated, and this situation is unstable. As a result, the excess water vapor crystallizes out, either into water droplets or directly into ice.

super-; → saturation.

superscript
  زبرنوشت   
zabarneveš (#)

Fr.: indice supérieur   

An → index (a digit or symbol) written slightly above and to the right of a letter, such as for representing variable components in → tensor analysis. → subscript. The most common mathematical superscript is an → exponent. Other common superscripts are the single and double prime marks indicating the → first derivative and → second derivative of a → function. See also → contravariant tensor.

super- + script, → subscript.

Zabarneveš, from zabar- "above," → superior + nevešt "written," → subscript.

supersonic
  اَبَر-صدایی   
abar-sedâyi

Fr.: supersonique   

Describing a speed that is greater than the → sound speed in the medium concerned. See also → Mach number, → subsonic.

super-; → sonic.

supersymmetry
  اَبَر-همامونی   
abar-hamâmuni

Fr.: supersymétrie   

A class of theories that seek to unify the four fundamental forces of nature. It proposes symmetrical relationships linking fermions and bosons (particles of half integer spin, like electrons, protons, and neutrinos) with particles of integral spin (like photons and gluons).

super; → symmetry.

superthin galaxy
  کهکشان ِ اَبَرنازک   
kahkešân-e abarnâzok

Fr.: galaxie supermince   

A galaxy that appears as an extraordinary thin and long figure on the sky because of its → edge-on orientation, highly flattened stellar → disk, and absence of a → bulge component. Superthin galaxies are → gas-rich and have optically diffuse disks with little internal absorption, as well as low emission-line intensity ratios and slowly rising → rotation curves. They seem to be among the least evolved disk galaxies in the local Universe, having undergone only minimal dynamical heating, → star formation, and → angular momentum transport. Examples are: UGC 7321, UGC 3697, UGC 9242.

super-; → thin; → galaxy.

superwind
  اَبَر-باد   
abar-bâd

Fr.: super-vent   

A galactic-scale wind driven by the collective effect of a large number of → supernovae and → winds from → massive stars occurring in the central region of a galaxy. Superwinds have been invoked, among other things, as the source by which the → intergalactic medium is provided with → enriched gas (see, e.g. Heckman et al. 1990, ApJS 74, 833).

super-; → wind.

superwind galaxy
  کهکشان ِ اَبَر-باد   
kahkešân-e abar-bâd

Fr.: galaxie à super-vent   

A galaxy with → superwind characteristics. M 82 and NGC 4666 are among superwind galaxy candidates.

superwind; → galaxy.

supplement
  ۱) آپره؛ ۲) آپریدن   
1) âporé; 2) âporidan

Fr.: supplément   

1a) A thing added to something else in order to complete, reinforce, or extend it.
1b) A separation section added to a book, document, etc., to supply additional or later information, or the like.
2a) To complete, add to, or extend by a supplement.
2b) To form a supplement or addition to.

From L. supplementum "that which fills up, that with which anything is made full or whole, something added to supply a deficiency," from supplere "to fill up, complete," from → sub- "up from below" + plere "to fill;" cognate with Pers. por, as below.

Âporidan, from prefix â- + por "full;" Mid.Pers. purr; O.Pers. paru- "much, many;" Av. parav-, pauru-, pouru-, from par- "to fill;" PIE *pelu- "full," from *pel- "to be full;" cf. Skt. puru-; Gk. polus; P.Gmc. *fullaz (O.H.G. fol, Ger. voll, Goth. full, O.E. full).

supplementary
  آپرنده، آپره‌ای   
âporandé, âpore-yi

Fr.: supplémentaire   

Completing something or added as a supplement.

supplement; → -ary.

supplementary angle
  زاویه‌ی ِ آُپرنده   
zâviye-ye âporandé

Fr.: angle supplémentaire   

The angle that when added to a given angle makes 180°. → complementary angle.

supplementary; → angle.

support
  ۱) پادیر؛ ۲) پادیریدن   
1) pâdir; 2) pâdiridan

Fr.: 1) appui, soutien, support; 2) supporter, soutenir, être pour, appuyer   

1a) Something that serves as a foundation, prop, brace, or stay.
1b) The act or an instance of supporting.
2a) To bear or hold up (a load, mass, structure, part, etc.); serve as a foundation for.
2b) To uphold (a person, cause, policy, etc.) by aid, countenance, one's vote, etc.; back (Dictionary.com).

M.E. supporten, from M.Fr. supporter, from L. supportare "convey, carry, bring forward," from → sub- "up from under" + portare "to carry."

Pâdir "a column supporting a building; a post supporting a wall."

suppose
  انگاشتن، انگاریدن   
engâštan, engâridan (#)

Fr.: supposer   

1) To assume (something), as for the sake of argument or as part of a proposition or theory.
2) To consider (something) as a possibility suggested or an idea or plan proposed (Dictionary.com).

M.E. supposen, from O.Fr. supposer, from L. supponere "to put or place under," from → sub- "under" + ponere "to put, place," → position.

Engâštan, engâridan "to suppose," from Mid.Pers. (h)angârtan "to conside, to bear in mind, to regard as," from han, ham "together" → com- + kartan "to establish; to declare; to found;" Av. han-kârayeiti, from han-, ham- "together," + kar- "to remember; to impress on memory."

suppress
  نهاویدن   
nehâvidan

Fr.: supprimer   

1) To put down by authority or force.
2) To keep from public knowledge.
3) To restrain from a usual course or action. → suppression.

L. suppressus, p.p. of supprimere "to press down, stop, stifle," from → sub- "down, under" + premere "to press, push against," → express.

Nehâvidan, from ne-, → ni- "down, below," + hâvidan "to press," → express.

suppression
  نهاوش   
nehâveš

Fr.: suppression   

The act of suppressing; the state of being suppressed. → Compton suppression, → zero suppression.

suppress; → -tion.

supra-
  فراز، بالا، ابر-   
farâz, bâlâ, abar-

Fr.: supra-   

A prefix denoting "over, above, beyond, greater than."

From L. supra "above, over, before, beyond," → super-.

Farâz "above, up, upon," → height; bâlâ "above, up, high," → height; abar-, → super-.

supra-Eddington layer
  لایه‌ی ِ ابر-ادینگتونی   
lâye-ye abar-Eddingtoni

Fr.: couche super-eddingtonienne   

In some stellar models, particularly for evolved → massive stars, such as → red supergiants, → Luminous Blue Variables, and → Wolf-Rayet stars, an outermost layer of the stellar envelope where the luminosity might exceed the → Eddington limit. This is due to the → opacity peak produced by the variation in the ionization level of hydrogen in the outer → convective envelope, beneath the surface, of very luminous stars. The opacity peak generates supra-Eddington layers and density inversion. The high opacity decreases the Eddington luminosity in these layers, possibly to fainter levels than the actual stellar luminosity. As a result, the → radiative acceleration exceeds the → gravitational acceleration leading to → mass loss enhancement (see, e.g., A. Maeder, Physics, Formation and Evolution of Rotating Stars, Springer, 2009).

supra-; → Eddington limit; → layer.

supra-horizontal branch star
  ستاره‌ی ِ فراز ِ شاخه‌ی ِ افقی   
setâre-ye farâz-e šâxe-ye ofoqi

Fr.: étoile au-dessus de la branche horizontale   

A member of a rare class of objects found in → globular clusters to lie about one magnitude above and to the blue part of the → horizontal branch. These stars are identified as post → EHB stars on their way from to the → asymptotic giant branch.

supra-; → horizontal; → branch; → star.

supreme
  ابرتم   
abartom

Fr.: suprême   

1) Highest in rank or authority.
2) Of the highest quality, degree, character, importance, etc.

M.E., from M.Fr. suprême, and directly from L. supremus "highest," superlative of superus "situated above," from super "above," → super-.

Abartom "highest," from abar "high, upon," → super-, + -tom superlative suffix, → extreme.

sur-
  بر-، ابر-، رو-   
bar-, abar-, ru-

Fr.: sur-   

A prefix meaning "over, above, beyond, in addition," occurring mainly in loanwords from Fr.

From O.Fr. sour-, sor-, sur-, from L. → super-.

Bar-, abar-, → super-; ru-, ruy- "face, surface; aspect; appearance," variant rox (Mid.Pers. rôy, rôdh "face;" Av. raoδa- "growth," in plural form "appearance," from raod- "to grow, sprout, shoot;" cf. Skt. róha- "rising, height").

sure
  تنز   
tenz

Fr.: sûr   

Free from doubt as to the reliability, character, action, etc., of something (Dictionary.com).

M.E. sur(e), from M.Fr. sur, O.Fr. seur "safe, secure; trustworthy," from L. securus "free from care, untroubled, safe," from *se cura, from se "free from" + cura "care."

Tenz, from (Fine-e Bandar Abbâs) tenz "firm, fixed, solid," variant tereng; (Tabari) tereng, təreq "firm, fixed;" (Baxtiyâri) teng "firm;" cf. Baluci tranj-, dranjit, tranjit/drannj-, draht, dratk "to hang up;" ultimately from Proto-Ir. *dra(n)j- "to fix, fasten, hold;" Av. drənj- (draž-) "to fix, fasten, hold;" Parthian (*abi-) 'bdrynj- "to be sure, secure; make certain;" Khotanese drys- "to hold;" cognate with Gk. drassomai "I hold (with the hand), take;" O.Irish dringid "he climbs;" M.Welsh dringo "to climb;" PIE *dregh- "to hold, fasten."

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