An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



<< < -sc Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set sha SHB sho sib sie sil sim sin sit sky slo sno sod sol sol sol sol sor sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr SS sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str stu sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn > >>

Number of Results: 1353

Fr.: essaim   

A great number of things especially in motion. → meteorite swarm.

ME; OE swearm; cf. O.S., M.L.G. swarm, Swed. svärm, M.Du. swerm, O.H.G. swarm, Ger. Schwarm "swarm;" O.N. svarmr "tumult."

Qang in Lârestâni "swarm of bees, flies, or the like," Lori qem (qem zaye) "swarm of bees, ants, and the like."

sweep-up radius
  شعاع ِ روبش   
šo'â'-e rubeš

Fr.: rayon de balayage   

The → radius of a → supernova remnant (SNR) when, at the end of the → free expansion phase, the mass of the swept-up → shell equals that of the ejected gas from the → supernova explosion. It is given by RSW = (3Me / 4πρ0)(1/3), where Me is the ejected mass and ρ0 is the initial density of the → interstellar medium.

Sweep, from M.E. swepen, from O.E. swapan "to sweep;" cognate with Ger. schweifen; → up; → radius.

Šo'â', → radius; rubeš, noun from ruftan, rubidan "to sweep," → scan.

  ۱) دگربان؛ ۲) دگربانیدن   
1) degarbân; 2) degarbânidan

Fr.: 1) interrupteur; 2) interrompre   

1a) A shift from one to another.
1b) A device used to break or open an electric circuit or to divert current from one conductor to another.
2) To shift or exchange; To connect, disconnect, or redirect.

Switch "slender riding whip, flexible stick," probably from a Flemish or Low German word akin to Hanoverian swutsche, a variant of Low Ger. zwukse "long thin stick, switch."

Degarbân, from degar "other, another" (Mid.Pers. dit, ditikar "the other, the second;" O.Pers. duvitiya- "second," Av. daibitya-, bitya- "second;" Skt. dvitiya- "second," PIE *duitiio- "second") + -bân a suffix denoting "keeper, guard," sometimes forming agent nouns or indicating relation, → host.


Fr.: interrompre   

The act of changing one thing or position for another.

Verbal noun of → switch (v.).

šamšir (#)

Fr.: épée   

1) A weapon having various forms but consisting typically of a long, straight or slightly curved blade, sharp-edged on one or both sides, with one end pointed and the other fixed in a hilt or handle (
2) → Orion's Sword.

M.E.; O.E. sweord; cognate with Du. zwaard, Ger. Schwert, Sw. svärd.

Šamšir, Mid.Pers. šamšêr / šamšyl, Parthian safsêr; cf. Gk. sampsera denoting a "foreign sword." The E. scimitar derives ultimately from šamšir through M.Fr. cimeterre or directly from It. scimitarra, possibly from an unknown Ottoman Turkish word, borrowed from Pers.

bâhamšomâri (#)

Fr.: syllogisme   

A kind of → deductive reasoning whereby from two initial → propositions (two → premises) a third related proposition (→ conclusion) is derived. The typical form of a → categorical syllogism is "A is B;" "C is A;" "Therefore, C is B." For example, "All humans are mortal." "John is human." "Therefore, John is mortal." "Mortal" (B) is called the → major term; it occurs in the first premise and is the → predicate of the conclusion. "John" (C), the subject of the conclusion, is called the → minor term. "Human," which is common to both premises and is excluded from the conclusion, is called the → middle term. See also → Aristotelian forms. Syllogism is purely formal. It does not enrich knowledge, but gives a new presentation to what is already known. It is also possible to have a logically valid syllogism based on → absurd premises. For example, "All cats are mammals." "All cats are animals." "Therefore, all animals are mammals." Syllogism, representing the earliest branch of → formal logic, was developed in its original form by Aristotle in his Organon (Prior Analytics) about 350 BC.
See also: → bivalent logic, → polyvalent logic, → symbolic logic, → propositional logic, → first-order logic, → predicate logic, → syllogistic; → fuzzy logic.

M.E. silogisme, from O.Fr. silogisme, from L. syllogismus, from Gk. syllogismos "a syllogism," originally "inference, conclusion; computation, calculation," from syllogizesthai "bring together before the mind, compute, conclude," from assimilated form of → syn- "together" + logizesthai "to reason, to count," from logos "a reckoning, reason," → logic.

Bâhamšomârik, literally "reckoning together," from bâham "together," from "with," → hypo-, + ham, → syn-, + šomâr present stem of šomârdan "to reckon, calculate, enumerate, account for," → count, + suffix -i.

bâhamšomârik (#)

Fr.: syllogistique   

1a) Of or pertaining to a → syllogism.
1b) Like or consisting of syllogisms.
2a) The part of logic that deals with syllogisms.
2b) Syllogistic reasoning (

syllogism; → -ic.


Fr.: symbiotique   

Of or pertaining yo symbiosis in biology, denoting a close, prolonged association between two or more different organisms of different species that may be, but does not necessarily, of mutual benefit. → symbiotic star.

From Mod.L., from Gk. symbiosis "a living together," from symbioun "live together," from symbios "(one) living together (with another), partner," from → syn- "together" + bios "life," → bio-.

Hamzi "living together," from ham- "together," → syn-, + zi- present stem of zistan "to live," → bio-.

symbiotic B[e] star (symB[e])
setâre-ye B[e]-ye hamzi

Fr.: étoile B[e] symbiotique   

A → B[e] star whose spectrum shows the presence of a cool component characterized mainly by → TiO bands.

symbiotic; → B[e] star.

symbiotic star
  ستاره‌ی ِ همزی   
setâre-ye hamzi

Fr.: étoile symbiotique   

A stellar object whose optical spectrum displays lines characteristic of gases of two very different temperatures, typically of an M star (3500 K) and a B star (20 000 K) superimposed. A symbiotic star is in fact a close binary system.

symbiotic; → star.

namâd (#)

Fr.: symbole   

1) Something that stands for or represents something else, especially an object representing an abstraction.
2) A conventional sign or character that represents something in a specific context, e.g. an operation or quantity in mathematics or music.

M.E., from L.L. symbolum "creed, token, mark," from Gk. symbolon "sign, mark," from → syn- "together" + stem of ballein "to throw."

Namâd variant of namud, nemud past stem of nemudan "to show;" Mid.Pers. nimūdan, nimây- "to show," from O.Pers./Av. ni- "down; into," → ni- (PIE), + māy- "to measure;" cf. Skt. mati "measures," matra- "measure;" Gk. metron "measure;" L. metrum; PIE base *me- "to measure."

nemâdin (#)

Fr.: symbolique   

Of or relating to a symbol or symbols; serving as a symbol.

symbol; → -ic.

symbolic logic
  گوییک ِ نمادین   
guyik-e nemâdin

Fr.: logique symbolique   

A modern development of → formal logic based on a system of → symbols and → axiomatics in accordance with precise rules. It uses a formalized → artificial language to avoid the ambiguities and logical inadequacies of → natural languages. Symbolic logics are → polyvalent when they admit → truth values other than → true and → false.

symbolic; → logic.

symmetric relation
  بازانش ِ همامون   
bâzâneš-e hamâmun

Fr.: relation symétrique   

A relation between two quantities such that the first is to the second as the second is to the first. In symbols: a R b = b R a. For example, multiplication is an operation with a symmetric relation between the factors: 5 x 3 = 3 x 5.

symmetric; → relation.

symmetric tensor
  تانسور ِ همامون   
tânsor-e hamâmun

Fr.: tenseur symétrique   

A tensor that is → invariant under any → permutation of its indices (→ index). In other words, a tensor that equals its → transpose. For example, a second-order → covariant tensor Ajk if its components satisfy the equality: Ajk = Akj.

symmetric; → tensor.

symmetric, symmetrical

Fr.: symétrique   

Characterized by or exhibiting → symmetry.

Adj. of → symmetry.


Fr.: symétrie   

1) A quality of a geometric figure that has exactly similar parts with respect to a point, a line, or a plane of its own.
2) A geometric transformation that does not alter neither the shape nor the size of a figure.
3) A property of a mathematical function whose value does not change when its variables are interchanged.
4) Of physical phenomena, the property of remaining invariant under certain changes (as of rotation, reflection, inversion in space, the sign of the electric charge, parity, or the direction of time flow). See also → Noether's theorem.
See also:
asymmetry, → axial symmetry, → axisymmetry, → baryon asymmetry, → charge-parity symmetry, → dissymmetry, → gauge symmetry, → parity symmetry, → spherical symmetry, → spontaneous symmetry breaking, → supersymmetry, → symmetry group, → T-symmetry.

From L. symmetria, from Gk. symmetria "agreement in dimensions, due proportion, arrangement," from symmetros "having a common measure, even, proportionate," from → syn- "together" + metron "meter;" PIE base *me- "to measure;" cf. O.Pers., Av. mā- "to measure;" Skt. mati "measures;" L. metri "to measure."

Hamâmun from ham-, → syn- "together," + -â- epenthetic vowel + mun, variant mân "measure," as in Pers. terms pirâmun "perimeter," âzmun "test, trial," peymân "measuring, agreement," peymâné "a measure; a cup, bowl," from O.Pers./Av. mā(y)- "to measure;" cf. Skt. mati "measures," matra- "measure;" Gk. metron "measure;" L. metrum; PIE base *me- "to measure."

symmetry group
  گروه ِ همامونی   
goruh-e hamâmuni

Fr.: groupe de symétrie   

A group of symmetry-preserving operations composed of all rigid motions or similarity transformations of some geometric object onto itself.

symmetry; → group.

  هم-، هن-   
ham-, han-

Fr.: syn-   

A prefix occurring in loanwords from Gk., having the same function as → co-; used, with the meaning "with, together," in the formation of compound words. Variants sy-, syl-, sym-, sys-.

From Gk. syn "with, together with," of unknown origin.

Ham- "together, with; same, equally, even," Mid.Pers. ham-, like L. com- and Gk. syn- with neither of which it is cognate. O.Pers./Av. ham-, Skt. sam-; also O.Pers./Av. hama- "one and the same," Skt. sama-, Gk. homos-; originally identical with PIE numeral *sam- "one," from *som-. The Av. ham- appears in various forms: han- (before gutturals, palatals, dentals) and also hem-, hen-.


Fr.: synchrone   

A line connecting the dust grains in a comet tail that left the nucleus at the same time. → syndyne.

From L. synchronus "simultaneous," from Gk. synchronos "happening at the same time," from → syn- "together" + khronos "time."

Hamzamân, from ham-, → syn- "together" + zamân, → time.

<< < -sc Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set sha SHB sho sib sie sil sim sin sit sky slo sno sod sol sol sol sol sor sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr SS sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str stu sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn > >>