An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 1353
Každom (#)

Fr.: Scorpion   

The Scorpion. A large and impressive constellation in the → Zodiac, which lies between → Libra to the west and → Sagittarius to the east. Scorpius is located in the southern hemisphere near the center of the Milky Way at approximately 17h right ascension, -40° declination. The bright, red star → Antares marks the heart of the scorpion. The constellation contains deep sky objects such as the open clusters M6 and M7, and the globular clusters M4 and M80. Also in the southern end of the constellation there is the open star cluster NGC 6231. Abbreviation: Sco; genitive: Scorpii.

M.E., from O.Fr. scorpion, from L. scorpionem (nominative scorpio), from Gk. skorpios "a scorpion," from PIE base *(s)ker- "to cut," → shear. According to Gk. mythology, the constellation represents a giant scorpion sent forth by the earth-goddess Gaia to kill the giant Orion when he threatened to slay all the beasts of the earth. Orion and the Scorpion were afterward placed amongst the stars as a pair of constellations. The two opponents are never seen in the sky at the same time, for one constellation sets as the other rises. The scorpion's claws were originally formed by Libra.

Každom "scorpion," variants kajdom, gaždom literally "crooked tail," from Mid.Pers. gazdum literally "stinging tail," from gaz present stem of gazidan (also Mod.Pers.) "to sting, to bite" + dum, dumb (Mod.Pers. dom, domb) "tail;" Av. duma- "tail."

Scorpius X-1
  کژدم X-1   
Každom X-1

Fr.: Scorpius X-1   

The first and the brightest X-ray source in the sky, after the Sun, discovered in 1962. Scorpius X-1 is a low-mass → X-ray binary consisting of a compact object like a → neutron star or a → black hole, and a low-mass stellar companion. The compact object has a mass of 1.4 → solar masses and the companion 0.42 solar masses. The orbital period is 18.9 hours, and the system lies at a distance of about 9,000 → light-years. The X-rays come from → accretion, where material from the companion overflows its → Roche lobe and spirals down onto the compact object. The luminosity results from the transformation of the falling material's → gravitational potential energy to heat by → viscosity in the → accretion disk.

Named such by the discoverers (Giacconi et al. 1962), because it was the first extrasolar → X-ray source of the sky detected in the constellation → Scorpius.

Scorpius-Centaurus association
  آهزش ِ کژدم-کنتاؤروس   
âhazeš-e Každom-Kentawros

Fr.: association Scorpius-Centaurus   

The nearest → OB association to the Sun. It contains several hundred stars, mostly → B stars which concentrate in the three subgroups: Upper Scorpius, Upper Centaurus Lupus, and Lower Centaurus Crux. Upper Scorpius is the youngest subgroup, Upper Centaurus Lupus the oldest subgroup of the association. Isochrone fitting to the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram indicates that the star formation occurred some 5-20 Myr ago. Based on data from the → Hipparcos catalog, it turns out that the Sco-Cen association lies at a distance of 118-145 → parsecs, with the exact value depending on the subgroup of the association. The Sco-Cen association is probably a member of the → Gould Belt (Preibisch & Mamajek, 2008, astro-ph/0809.0407).

Scorpius; → Centaurus; → association.

scotopic vision
  دید ِ تاریکی   
did-e târiki

Fr.: vision scotopique   

Vision that occurs when the eye is dark-adapted. In scotopic vision, the level of luminance is so low that the retinal cones are not stimulated, and there is no color vision. Same as scotopia; → dark adaptation.

Scotopic, from L. Gk. skoto- combining form of skotos "darkness" + -opia akin to ope "view, look," ops "eye, face;" → vision.

Did, → vision; târiki noun from târik "dark," Mid.Pers. târig "dark," târ "darkness," Av. taθra- "darkness," taθrya- "dark," cf. Skt. támisrâ- "darkness, dark night," L. tenebrae "darkness," Hittite taš(u)uant- "blind," O.H.G. demar "twilight."

pardé (#)

Fr.: écran   

A large, usually flat surface onto which an image is projected for viewing.
The portion of a computer terminal or monitor upon which information is displayed.

M.E. screne; O.Fr. escren "a screen against heat," from M.Du. scherm "screen, cover," or Frank. *skrank "barrier;" cf. O.H.G. skirm, skerm "protection," scrank "barrier;" Ger. Schrank "cupboard."

Pardé, from Mid.Pers. pardag "curtain, veil;" maybe cognate with Skt. patta- "cloth, an upper garment," pattaka- "cloth, girdle, strip of cloth."

screen font
  ریختار ِ پرده   
rixtâr-e pardé

Fr.: fonte d'écran   

A character used for on-screen → display. See also → printer font.

screen; → font.

screened Coulomb interaction
  اندرژیرش ِ باپرده‌ی ِ کولن   
andaržireš-e bâparde-ye Coulomb

Fr.: interaction de Coulomb écrantée   

The → Coulomb interaction reduced owing to the presence of other electrons. See → shielding effect.

screen; → coulomb; → interaction.

screening effect
  اسکر ِ پرده   
oskar-e pardé

Fr.: effet d'écran   

Same as → shielding effect.

screen; → effect.

pic (#)

Fr.: vis   

A piece of metal, consisting of a threaded and usually tapered shank that has a slotted head by which it is turned into something in order to fasten things together.

M.E. scrwe, screw, from M.Fr. escroue "nut, cylindrical socket," of uncertain origin.

Pic "screw," present stem of picidan "to twist, entwine, coil."

Peykartarâš (#)

Fr.: Sculpteur   

A minor and faint → constellation in the southern sky at 0h 30m → right ascension, 33° south → declination. Its brightest star is variable with a mean magnitude of only 4.31. Sculptor contains the south Galactic pole. It also contains the → Sculptor Dwarf, which is a member of the → Local Group. Abbreviation: Scl; Genitive: Sculptoris.

Sculptor was introduced by Nicolas Louis de Lacaille (1713-1762). He originally named it Apparatus Sculptoris "the sculptor's studio," but the name was later shortened. From L. sculp(ere) "to carve" + a suffix forming personal agent nouns.

Peykartarâš, from peykar "form, figure, body" (from Mid.Pers. pahikar "picture, image;" from O.Pers. patikara- "picture, (sculpted) likeness," from patiy "against" (Av. paiti; Skt. prati; Gk. poti/proti + kara- "doer, maker," from kar- "to do, make, build;" Av. kar-; Skt. kr-; cf. Skt. pratikrti- "an image, likeness, model; counterpart") + tarâš "cutter," from tarâšidan "to cut, hew; scape; shave;" (Mid.Pers. tâšitan "to cut, cleave; create by putting together different elements;" Av. taš- "to cut off, fashion, shape, create," taša- "axe" (Mod.Pers. taš tišé "axe"), tašan- "creator;" cf. Skt. taks- "to fom by cutting, tool, hammer, form," taksan- "wood-cutter, carpenter;" Gk. tekton "carpenter," tekhne "art, skill, craft, method, system;" L. textere "to weave;" PIE *teks- "to fashion").

Sculptor Dwarf Elliptical Galaxy
  کهکشان ِ کوتوله‌ی ِ بیضی‌گون ِ پیکرتراش   
kahkešân-e kutule-ye beyzigun-e Peykartarâš

Fr.: galaxie naine elliptique du Sculpteur   

A → dwarf elliptical galaxy that is a satellite of our → Milky Way. It lies about 285,000 → light-years away in the constellation → Sculptor, and has an → absolute magnitude of -11.28 and a mass of about 3 million → solar masses. The Sculptor Dwarf is a → metal-deficient galaxy containing only 4 percent of the oxygen and carbon elements in our own Galaxy.

Sculptor; → dwarf; → elliptical; → galaxy.

Sculptor Group
  گروه ِ پیکرتراش   
goruh-e Peykartarâš

Fr.: groupe du Sculpteur   

The nearest group of galaxies to our → Local Group, lying near the south Galactic pole at about 10 million → light-years distance. The Sculptor Group is dominated by five galaxies, four spiral (NGC 247, 253, 300, and 7793) and one irregular (NGC 55). The brightest of the five is NGC 253. The nearest galaxy in this group is NGC 55 which at a distance of 5 million light-years lies on the border of the Local Group.

Sculptor; → group.

Separ (#)

Fr.: Ecu de Sobieski   

The Shield. A small constellation in the southern Milky Way, at 18h 40m right ascension, 10° south declination. Its brightest star has a visual magnitude of 3.85. Scutum contains several open clusters, as well as a globular cluster and a planetary nebula. The two best known deep sky objects in Scutum are M11 (NGC 6705), a dense open cluster, and M26, another open cluster also known as NGC 6694. The globular cluster NGC 6712 and the planetary nebula IC 1295 can be found in the eastern part of the constellation. Abbreviation: Sct; Genitive: Scuti.

Scutum was created by Johannes Hevelius in 1683, who originally named it L. Scutum Sobiescianum "the shield of Sobieski" to commemorate the victory of the Polish forces led by King John III Sobieski in the Battle of Vienna, and thus refers to Sobieski's Janina Coat of Arms. Later, the name was shortened to Scutum "shield."

Separ "shield," from Mid.Pers. spar "shield;" cf. Skt. phalaka- "board, lath, leaf, shield," phálati "(he) splits;" Gk. aspalon "skin, hide," spolas "flayed skin," sphalassein "to cleave, to disrupt;" O.H.G. spaltan "to split;" Goth. spilda "board;" PIE base *(s)p(h)el- "to split, to break off."

Scutum-Crux Arm
  بازوی ِ سپر-چلیپا   
bâzu-ye Separ-Calipâ

Fr.: bras Écu-Croix   

A spiral arm of our Galaxy located between the Sagittarius Arm and the Norma Arm, though it is rather less prominent than either of these two better defined spiral arms. It originates relatively close to the Sun's present position in the Galaxy, and follows a sweeping arc of about 80,000 light years to the opposite side of the Galactic disk.

Scutum; → Crux; → arm.

daryâ (#)

Fr.: mer   

1) A large lake or landlocked body of water.
2) A large area or great number of something. → Fermi sea.

O.E. "sheet of water, sea, lake;" cf. Du. zee, Ger. See, O.N. sær "sea," Goth saiws "marsh."

Daryâ "sea;" Mid.Pers. daryâp variant zrah; O.Pers. drayah-; Av. zrayah- "sea;" cf. Skt. jráyas- "expanse, space, flat surface."

sea horizon
  افق ِ دریا   
ofoq-e daryâ

Fr.: horizon de mer   

The → apparent horizon formed by the sea.

sea; → horizon.

jost-o-ju (#)

Fr.: recherche   

To explore or examine in order to find something.

M.E. serchen, cerchen, from O.Fr. cerchier "to search," from L. circare "to go about, wander, traverse," from circus "circle."

Jost-o-ju interfixed jost and juy past and present stem of jostan/juyidan "to seek, strive for;" Proto-Iranian *iud- "to struggle for something, to fight" (Av. yūδ- "to fight, struggle;" Mod.Pers. justan, juy- "to search, seek, ask for"); cf. Mid.Pers. vijuyihitan "to search, seek."

Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI)
  جستجوی ِ هوش ِ اُسترزمینی   
jost-o-ju-ye huš-e ostar-zamini

Fr.: recherche d'intelligence extra-terrestre   

The scientific attempt to detect → intelligent extraterrestrial → life by surveying the sky to find the existence of → transmissions, especially → radio waves or → light, from a → civilization on a distant → planet. The SETI Institute, that carries out the project, is a private non-profit center founded in 1984. There are many methods that SETI scientific teams use to search for extraterrestrial intelligence. Many of these search billions of radio frequencies that reach Earth from all over the → Universe, looking for an intelligent → radio signal. Other SETI teams search by looking for signals in pulses of light emanating from the stars.

search; → extraterrestrial; → intelligence.

  صدف، کلاچک   
sadaf (#), kelâcak (#)

Fr.: coquille   

The hard shell of a marine mollusk.

sea; → shell.

Sadaf, loan from Ar. Kelâcak from Tabari, variant kelâcin, cf. Gilaki guš kuli. The component kel-, kul might be related to PIE *qarq- "to be hard," → crab.

fasl (#)

Fr.: saison   

One of the four periods of the year astronomically defined by the position of the Sun with respect to the equator. As a result of the obliquity of the ecliptic, the angular distance between the Sun and the equator varies in the course of the year. This circumstance gives rise to seasons. The current lengths of the astronomical seasons, around the year 2000, are about: spring 92.76 days, summer 93.65 days, autumn 89.84 days, and winter 88.99 days. The seasons are unequal because the Earth's orbit is slightly elliptical and the Sun is not exactly at the center of the orbit. Moreover, the Earth moves faster when it is close to the Sun than when it is farther away, so the seasons that occur when the Earth is close to the Sun pass more quickly.

M.E. sesoun, seson, from O.Fr. seison "a sowing, planting," from L. sationem (nominative satio) "a sowing," from p.p. stem of serere "to scatter seed over land."

Fasl, from Ar. faSl "cutting, dividing; section."

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