axtaršenâsi-ye dustkâr (#)
Fr.: astronomie amateur
The astronomical activities carried out by → amateur astronomers.
axtaršenâsi-ye Arabi (#)
Fr.: astronomie arabe
The astronomical activities that took place from the 8th to the 14th century in the Middle East, Central Asia, North Africa, and Moorish Spain. Arab/Arabic is not meant as an ethnic but rather a linguistic term. In fact a large number of Non-Arab scholars, mainly Persians, Mongols, and Spanish people, wrote their works in Arabic. Even so, many astronomical works were also produced in the other languages of this civilization, especially Persian and in the later centuries Turkish. For example, the main → zijs were originally written in Persian, a notable example being the Zij of Ulugh Beg (c. A.D. 1394-1449), a landmark in precise observations before the Renaissance. Therefore, the term Arabic astronomy is misleading. It also creates a disparity with respect to Western scholars who wrote in Latin. The term "Latin astronomy" is meaningless and as far as these scholars are concerned, the Latin adjective is not specified. For example, the expressions like "the Latin astronomer Copernicus," "the Latin physicist Newton," or "the Latin philosopher Leibniz" are not used. See also → Islamic astronomy.
M.E. arabik, from O.Fr. arabique, from L. Arabicus; → astronomy.
The study that deals with the astronomical knowledge of prehistoric peoples (season events, calendars, observing sites, astronomical alignments) and its influence on their cultures and societies (mythologies, religions, life). Archaeoastronomy covers the intersection between astronomy and archaeology. Same as → astroarchaeology, megalithic astronomy.
Archeoastronomy, from L. archaeo-, archeo "ancient; earlier; primitive," from Gk. arkhaio-, from arkhaios "ancient" + → astronomy.
Bâstânaxtaršenâsi, from bâstân "ancient" + axtaršenâsi, → astronomy.
The science of the celestial bodies and the Universe, dealing especially with the positions, dimensions, distribution, motion, chemical composition, energy, and evolution of celestial bodies and phenomena.
O.Fr. astronomie, from L. astronomia, from Gk. astronomia, from → astro- "star" + nomos "arranging, regulating," related to nemein "to deal out."
Axtaršenâsi, from axtar "star," → astro- + -šenâsi "knowledge" from šenâxtan "to know, to discern."
axtaršenâsi bâ bâlon, bâlon-axtaršenâsi
Fr.: astronomie en ballon
A branch of modern astronomy in which balloons are used to carry telescopes and instruments to high altitudes (up to 50 km) for observation.
Balloon, from Fr. ballon, from It. dialectal ballone, augmentative of balla, ball, from P.Gmc. *ball-, from PIE *bhel- "to blow, swell". → astronomy.
Axtaršenâsi, → astronomy; bâlon, from Fr. ballon.
A common branch of astronomy and biology dealing with the study of life throughout the Universe; synonymous with → astrobiology and → exobiology.
Bioastronomy, from → bio- + → astronomy.
Zistaxtaršenâsi, from zist-, → bio-, + axtaršenâsi, → astronomy.
The study of the beliefs, interpretations, and practices of specific cultures regarding celestial objects or phenomena. Ethnoastronomy uses the tools and methodologies of → ethnology in the study of astronomical conceptions.
axtaršenâi-ye ostar-kahkašâni, ~ borun-kahkašâni
Fr.: astronomie extragalactique
The branch of astronomy that deals with objects beyond the Milky Way, especially galaxies and quasars.
→ extragalactic; → astronomy.
axtaršenâsi-ye partowhâ-ye gâmmâ (#)
Fr.: astronomie en rayons gamma
The study of → gamma rays from → extraterrestrial → sources, especially → gamma-ray bursts.
axtaršenâsi-ye forusorx (#)
Fr.: astronomie infrarouge
The study of infrared properties of astronomical objects.
axtaršenâsi-ye eslâmi (#)
Fr.: astronomie islamique
The astronomical activities that took place from the 8th to the 14th century in the Middle East, Central Asia, North Africa, and Moorish Spain. The term Islamic should refer to a civilization rather than a religion, because much of the astronomy was secular. In fact more than 90% of "Islamic" astronomy deals with the Greek astronomy → Ptolemaic system, which has obviously nothing to do with religion. Moreover, many non-Muslims within that civilization contributed to this science and must be acknowledged. Apart from these considerations, the term "Islamic astronomy" creates a conceptual disparity. In comparison, the works of European astronomers, such as Copernicus, Galileo, Newton, and others are not placed under "Christian astronomy," and they are indeed not called "Christian scientists." See also → Arabic astronomy, → Islamic calendar.
From Islam, literally "submission" (to God); → astronomy.
axtaršenâsi-ye mowjhâ-ye milimetri (#)
Fr.: astronomie millimétrique
That part of radio astronomy which uses electromagnetic waves in the range 1-10 millimeter to study various components of the Universe, in particular the chemistry of interstellar matter.
→ millimeter wave; → astronomy.
Fr.: astronomie nautique
The branch of practical astronomy concerned with the determination of position and direction on sea by observation of celestial objects.
Nautical, from M.Fr. nautique, from L. nauticus "pertaining to ships or sailors," from Gk. nautikos, from nautes "sailor," from naus "ship," from PIE *nau- "boat;" cf. Pers. nâv "ship;" O.Pers./Av. *nāv-, O.Pers. nāviyā- "fleet;" Skt. nau-, nava- "ship, boat;" → astronomy.
Axtaršenâsi→ astronomy; daryâ-navardik, relating to daryâ-navardi "sea navigation," from daryâ "sea" (Mid.Pers. daryâp variant zrah; O.Pers. drayah-; Av. zrayah- "sea;" cf. Skt. jráyas- "expanse, space, flat surface") + navardi, noun of navardidan, navardan "to travel, walk, pass by and over" + -ik, → -ic.
Fr.: astronomie nautique
Same as → nautical astronomy.
Navigational, adj. of navigation, from L. navigationem (nom. navigatio), from navigatus, p.p. of navigare "to sail, steer a ship," from navis "ship," cognate with Pers. nâv "ship," as below, + root of agere "to drive," → act; → astronomy.
Axtaršenâsi→ astronomy; nâvrâni "navigation," from nâv "ship;" O.Pers./Av. *nāv-, O.Pers. nāviyā- "fleet;" cf. Skt. nau-, nava- "ship, boat" + râni verbal noun of rândan "to drive, to cause to go," causative of raftan "to go, walk, proceed" (present tense stem row-, Mid.Pers. raftan, raw-, Proto-Iranian *rab/f- "to go; to attack").
Fr.: astronomie de position
The branch of astronomy that is used to determine the location of objects on the celestial sphere, as seen at a particular date, time, and location on the Earth. Same as → spherical astronomy.
→ positional; → astronomy.
axtaršenâsi-ye Batlamyus (#)
Fr.: astronomie ptoléméenne
→ Ptolemaic system; → astronomy.
râdio axtaršenâsi, axtaršenâsi-ye râdioi
Fr.: radio astronomie
The branch of astronomy that deals with the study of the Universe by means of → radio waves.
axtaršenâsi bâ roket
Fr.: astronomie par fusée
The study of celestial bodies in the wavelengths that are almost completely absorbed by the atmosphere, by using a rocket to carry instruments above 250 km to measure the searched for phenomena.
Fr.: astronomie sphérique
The branch of astronomy that is concerned with determining the apparent positions and motions of celestial bodies on the celestial sphere. Same as → positional astronomy.
axtaršenâsi-ye setâreyi (#)
Fr.: astronomie stellaire
The branch of astronomy that deals with the study of stars, their physical properties, formation, and evolution. Same as → stellar astrophysics and → stellar physics.