acceleration of gravity
Fr.: accélération de la gravité
The acceleration that an object experiences because of gravity when it falls freely close to the surface of a massive body, such as a planet. Same as → gravitational acceleration.
→ acceleration; → gravity.
black hole surface gravity
gerâni-ye ruye-ye siyah câl
Fr.: gravité de surface de trou noir
The acceleration of gravity at the → event horizon of a → black hole. For a → Schwarzschild back hole it is given by κ = GM/RSch2 = c4/(4GM).
center of gravity
Fr.: centre de gravité
A fixed point in a body through which the resultant force of gravitational attraction acts. Same as → center of mass, → center of inertia, → centroid.
Gerânigâh, from gerâni→ gravity + -gâh "place."
Fr.: gravité effective
In a → rotating star, the sum of the → gravity and the → centrifugal acceleration. The effective gravity is a function of the rotation velocity (Ω) and the → colatitude (θ). At the pole (θ = 0°) and the equator (θ = 90°) the effective gravity is radial. See also → total gravity.
Fr.: gravité f(r)
An extension of Einstein's → general relativity
derived from relaxing the hypothesis that the
→ Hilbert-Einstein action for the
→ gravitational field is strictly linear. This was done by
replacing the → Ricci scalar,
R, with a non-linear function of R:
f(R), function of the → Ricci scalar; → gravity.
1) The apparent force of → gravitation on an object at or
near the surface of a star, planet, satellite, etc.
From L. gravitatem (nom. gravitas) "weight, heaviness," from gravis "heavy," from PIE base *gwrə- "heavy" (cf. Mod.Pers. gerân "heavy;" Av. gouru- "heavy;" Skt. guru- "heavy, weighty, venerable;" Gk. baros "weight," barys "heavy;" Goth. kaurus "heavy").
Gerâni, noun of gerân "heavy, ponderous, valuable," from Mid.Pers. garân "heavy, hard, difficult;" Av. gouru- "heavy" (in compounds), from Proto-Iranian *garu-; cognate with gravity, as above.
An important astronautical technique whereby a → spacecraft takes up a tiny fraction of the → orbital energy of a planet it is flying by, allowing it to change → trajectory and → speed. Since the planet is not at rest but gravitating around the Sun, the spacecraft uses both the orbital energy and the gravitational pull of the planet. Also known as the slingshot effect or → gravitational slingshot. More specifically, as the spacecraft approaches the planet, it is accelerated by the planet's gravity. If the spacecraft's velocity is too low, or if it is heading too close to the planet, then the planet's → gravitational force will pull it down to the planet. But if its speed is large enough, and its orbit does not bring it too close to the planet, then the gravitational attraction will just bend the spacecraft's trajectory around, and the accelerated spacecraft will pass rapidly by the planet and start to move away. In the absence of other gravitational forces, the planet's gravity would start to slow down the spacecraft as it moves away. If the planet were stationary, the slow-down effect would be equal to the initial acceleration, so there would be no net gain in speed. But the planets are themselves moving through space at high speeds, and this is what gives the "slingshot" effect. Provided the spacecraft is traveling through space in the same direction as the planet, the spacecraft will emerge from the gravity assist maneuver moving faster than before.
→ gravity; assist, from M.Fr. assister "to stand by, help, assist," from L. assistere "assist, stand by," from → ad- "to" + sistere "to cause to stand," from PIE *siste-, from *sta- "to stand" (cognate with Pers. istâdan "to stand").
Yâri "assistance, help; friendship," from yâr "assistant, helper, friend," from Mid.Pers. hayyâr "helper," hayyârêh "help, aid, assistance," Proto-Iranian *adyāva-bara-, cf. Av. aidū- "helpful, useful."
Fr.: embrillancement gravitationnel
→ gravity; → brightening.
Fr.: assombrissement gravitationnel
The darkening, or brightening, of a region on a star due to localized decrease, or increase, in the → effective gravity. Gravity darkening is explained by the → von Zeipel theorem, whereby on stellar surface the → radiative flux is proportional to the effective gravity. This means that in → rotating stars regions close to the pole are brighter (and have higher temperature) than regions close to the equator. Gravity darkening occurs also in corotating → binary systems, where the → tidal force leads to both gravity darkening and gravity brightening. The effects are often seen in binary star → light curves. See also → gravity darkening exponent. Recent theoretical work (Espinosa Lara & Rieutord, 2011, A&A 533, A43) has shown that gravity darkening is not well represented by the von Zeipel theorem. This is supported by new interferometric observations of some rapidly rotating stars indicating that the von Zeipel theorem seems to overestimate the temperature difference between the poles and equator.
gravity darkening coefficient
hamgar-e târikeš-e gerâneši
Fr.: coefficient de l'assombrissement gravitationnel
According to the → von Zeipel theorem, the emergent flux, F, of total radiation at any point over the surface of a rotationally or tidally distorted star in → hydrostatic equilibrium varies proportionally to the local gravity acceleration: F ∝ geffα, where geff is the → effective gravity and α is the gravity darkening coefficient. See also the → gravity darkening exponent.
→ gravity; → darkening; → coefficient.
gravity darkening exponent
nemâ-ye târikeš-e gerâneši
Fr.: exposant de l'assombrissement gravitationnel
The exponent appearing in the power law that describes the → effective temperature of a → rotating star as a function of the → effective gravity, as deduced from the → von Zeipel theorem or law. Generalizing this law, the effective temperature is usually expressed as Teff∝ geffβ, where β is the gravity darkening exponent with a value of 0.25. It has, however, been shown that the relation between the effective temperature and gravity is not exactly a power law. Moreover, the value of β = 0.25 is appropriate only in the limit of slow rotators and is smaller for fast rotating stars (Espinosa Lara & Rieutord, 2011, A&A 533, A43).
tarz-e gerâni, mod-e ~
Fr.: mode gravité
Same as → g mode
Fr.: sillage de gravité
Transient → streamers which form when → clumps of particles begin to collapse under their own → self-gravity but are sheared out by → differential rotation. This phenomenon is believed to be the source of → azimuthal asymmetry in → Saturn's → A ring (Ellis et al., 2007, Planetary Ring Systems, Springer).
Fr.: onde de gravité
1) A wave that forms and propagates at the free → surface
of a body of → fluid
after that surface has been disturbed and the fluid particles
have been displaced from their original positions.
The motion of such waves is controlled by the restoring force of gravity rather
than by the surface tension of the fluid.
internal gravity wave (IGW)
mowj-e gerâni-ye daruni
Fr.: onde de gravité interne
A wave generated inside a density-stratified fluid under the influence of → buoyancy forces. Known also as → gravity wave or internal wave.
The state or condition where the force of → gravity is very weak, e.g. the → weightlessness experienced inside an orbiting spacecraft.
Fr.: gravité quantique
A theory of gravity, yet to be developed, that would properly include quantum mechanics. Because of the tensor nature of general relativity, it is not renormalizable as a field theory in perturbation from flat space. So far various attempts to quantize general relativity have been unsuccessful.
Fr.: gravité répulsive
In → general relativity, the gravity resulting from a → negative pressure. See also → cosmological constant.
The → gravitational attraction of a system of masses, such of a planet, that allows the system to be held together by their mutual gravity. Self-gravity between atoms allows a → star to hold together, despite tremendous temperature and pressure. Similarly, to be considered a → planet, a body must have enough mass so that its self-gravity pulls it into a near-spherical shape.
Fr.: gravité spécifique
The ratio of the density of a substance at the temperature under consideration to the density of water at the temperature of its maximum density (4 °C).