An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



Number of Results: 12 Search : specific
Einstein's theory of specific heat
  نگره‌ی ِ گرمای ِ آبیزه‌ی ِ اینشتین   
negare-ye garmâ-ye âbize-ye Einstein

Fr.: théorie de la chaleur spécifique d'Einstein   

Same as → Einstein model.

Einstein; → theory; → specific heat.


Fr.: précis, explicite, spécifique   

1) Clearly defined or identified; precise; particular.
2) Belonging or relating uniquely to a particular subject; not general.
3) Biology: Relating to species or a species.
4) Physics: Of or denoting a physical quantity expressed in terms of a unit mass, volume, or other measure, in order to give a value independent of the properties or scale of the particular system studied. → specific angular momentum; → specific charge; → specific density; → specific gravity; → specific heat; → specific humidity; → specific intensity; → specific volume.

From Fr. spécifique and directly from L.L. specificus "constituting a kind or sort," from L. species "kind, sort," → species.

Âbizé, from Mid.Pers. apēcak "pure, sacred" (older form of vižé, → special), from *apa-vēcak "set apart," from prefix apa- + vēcak, from vēxtan (Mod.Pers. bixtan) "to detach, separate, sift, remove," Av. vaēk- "to select, sort out, sift," pr. vaēca-, Skt. vic-, vinakti "to sift, winnow, separate; to inquire."

specific angular momentum
  جنباک ِ زاویه‌ای ِ آبیزه   
jonbâk-e zâvie-yi-ye âbizé

Fr.: moment angulaire spécifique   

Angular momentum per unit mass.

specific; → angular; → momentum.

specific charge
  بار ِ آبیزه   
bâr-e âbizé

Fr.: charge spécifique   

The electric charge to mass ratio of an elementary particle.

specific; → charge.

specific density
  چگالی ِ آبیزه   
cagâli-ye âbizé

Fr.: densité spécifique   

Same as → relative density.

specific; → density.

specific gravity
  گرانی ِ آبیزه   
gerâni-ye âbizé

Fr.: gravité spécifique   

The ratio of the density of a substance at the temperature under consideration to the density of water at the temperature of its maximum density (4 °C).

specific; → gravity.

specific heat
  گرمای ِ آبیزه   
garmâ-ye âbizé

Fr.: chaleur spécifique   

1) The quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gm of a substance through 1 °C. More generally, the → heat capacity of a unit mass of a substance. For a homogeneous body it is expressed as: C = dQ/M dT, where dQ is the quantity of heat transferred to a mass of M to raise the temperature by dT. It is often convenient to use the gram-mole as a unit of mass, → molar heat capacity.
2) For a gas there are two principal specific heats depending on the way in which the temperature is increased: i) that measured at constant pressure, CP, and ii) that measured at constant volume, CV. The specific heat CP is greater than CV, because a gas heated at constant pressure expands, and heat energy must be supplied equivalent to the work done in the expansion. The ratio γ = CP/CV is called the → adiabatic index. It varies from 1.66 for mono-atomic gases to a little over 1 for gases with complex molecules.

specific; → heat.

specific humidity
  نم ِ آبیزه   
nam-e âbizé

Fr.: humidité spécifique   

The dimensionless ratio of the mass of water vapor to the total mass in a particular volume. → humidity

specific; → humidity.

specific intensity
  درتنویی ِ آبیزه   
dartanuyi-e âbizé

Fr.: intensité spécifique   

A measure of the amount of radiation received per unit solid angle per unit time per unit area normally from an element of surface.

specific; → intensity.

specific star formation rate (sSFR)
  نرخ ِ آبیزه‌ی ِ دیسش ِ ستارگان   
nerx-e âbize-ye diseš-e setâregân

Fr.: taux de formation d'étoiles spécifique   

Star formation rate per unit → mass. More specifically, the → star formation rate in a galaxy divided by the → stellar mass of the galaxy. Observations of galaxies over a wide range of → redshifts suggest that the slope of the SFR-M* relation is about unity, which implies that their sSFR does not depend strongly on stellar mass. Specific star formation rates increase out to z ~ 2 and are constant, or perhaps slowly increasing, from z = 2 out to z = 6, though with a large scatter, sSFR ~ 2-10 Gyr-1 (Lehnert et al., 2015, A&A 577, A112, and references therein).

specific; → star; → formation; → rate.

specific volume
  گنج ِ آبیزه   
gonj-e âbizé

Fr.: volume spécifique   

The volume occupied by unit mass of a substance. Specific volume is the reciprocal of density.

specific; → volume.


Fr.: précision, spécification   

1) The act of specifying.
2) A particular item, aspect, calculation, etc., in such a description.
3) Something specified, as in a bill of particulars; a specified particular, item, or article (

Verbal noun of → specify.