Matter composed entirely of → antiparticles. See also → antihydrogen.
Antimatter from Gk. → anti- "opposite, opposing, against" + → matter.
baryonic dark matter
mâde-ye siyâh-e bâriyoni
Fr.: matière noire baryonique
→ Dark matter made up of → baryons that are not luminous enough to produce any detectable radiation. It is generally believed that most dark matter is → non-baryonic. The baryonic dark matter could reside in a number of forms, including cold gas and compact objects.
mâde-ye bâriyoni (#)
Fr.: matière baryonique
Ordinary matter composed of → baryons, i.e. → protons and → neutrons, as distinct from → non-baryonic, exotic forms.
Fr.: matière circumstellaire
Dust, gas and plasma around stars, generally present in the form of stellar winds or nebulae ejected by the stars.
→ circumstellar; → matter.
cold dark matter (CDM)
mâdde-ye sard-e târik (#)
Fr.: matière noire froide
Any → hypothetical → non-baryonic → dark matter that is → non-relativistic at the point of → decoupling in the → early Universe. CDM plays a key role in → cosmic structure formation. See also → CDM model, → lambda cold dark matter, → Meszaros effect, → missing satellites problem.
mâdeh-ye cagâlidé (#)
Fr.: matière condensée
Matter in the liquid or solid state.
conservation of matter
Fr.: conservation de matière
Same as → conservation of mass.
→ conservation; → matter.
mâdde-ye târik (#)
Fr.: matière noire
Matter that has no radiation and therefore cannot be detected directly, but whose presence can be inferred from dynamical phenomena produced by its gravitational influence. The existence of dark matter is deduced mainly from the rotational speeds of galaxies, velocities of galaxies in clusters, gravitational lensing by galaxy clusters, and the temperature distribution of hot gas in galaxies and clusters of galaxies. Dark matter plays also a central role in cosmic structure formation. There exists a large number of → non-baryonic dark matter candidates. They include, the hypothetical stable particles → WIMPs, → neutralinos, → axions, → gravitinos, etc. Among unstable candidates are gravitinos with mild R-parity violation and sterile neutrinos. See also → baryonic dark matter, → dark matter candidate.
The concept of dark matter was first introduced by J.H. Oort (1932, Bull. Astron. Inst. Netherlands, 6, 249), who studied the vertical motions of the stars in the solar neighborhood and found that the visible matter could account for at most 50% of the derived surface density. → dark; → matter.
dark matter annihilation
nâbudi-ye mâde-ye târik
Fr.: annihilation de la matière noire
A hypothetical process whereby hypothetical → non-baryonic dark matter particles undergo → annihilation interactions with themselves. The process results in observable by-products such as high-energy photons, neutrinos, and other detectable particles. See also → dark matter decay.
→ dark; → matter; → annihilation.
dark matter candidate
nâmzad-e mâdde-ye târik (#)
Fr.: candidat matière noire
A hypothetical physical entity capable of accounting for the corresponding observed phenomena involving → dark matter. → Non-baryonic dark matter candidates include → WIMPs, → neutralinos, → axions, → gravitinos. Among → baryonic dark matter candidates can be noted ordinary and heavy → neutrinos, clouds of → neutral hydrogen gas, and compact objects.
dark matter decay
tabâhi-ye mâde-ye târik
Fr.: désintégration de la matière noire
In theoretical models, the hypothetical transformation of a → non-baryonic dark matter particle when symmetry is violated at special physical conditions. Dark matter decay and → dark matter annihilation are expected to produce enormous amounts of energy in the form of gamma-rays, cosmic rays, etc.
dark matter halo
hâle-ye mâde-ye târik (#)
Fr.: halo de matière sombre
A vast region surrounding a galaxy where dynamical tracers reveal a large amount of → hidden mass. The halo has considerable mass but relatively low luminosity, suggesting the presence of a lot of → dark matter.
mâdde-ye vâgen (#)
Fr.: matière dégénérée
Highly compressed matter in which the normal atomic structure has broken down and which, because of quantum-mechanical effects, exerts a pressure that is independent of temperature. Bodies with masses less than → Chandrasekhar's limit (1.4 solar masses) are supported by electron → degeneracy pressure and have densities of about 106 kg/m3. In collapsed stars of mass above 1.4 solar masses, gravity will overwhelm electron degeneracy and further collapse ensues. Electrons combine with protons to form neutrons, so producing a → neutron star. Because neutrons, like electrons, are → fermions and therefore subject to the → Pauli exclusion principle, at high enough densities, about 1014 kg/m3, neutron degeneracy pressure prevents further collapse of the star. For masses larger than 2-3 solar masses, even neutron degeneracy cannot prevent further collapse, and a → black hole is formed.
→ degenerate; → matter.
mâde-ye hâdroni (#)
Fr.: matière hadronique
Ordinary matter composed of → hadrons.
hot dark matter
mâdde-ye târik-e dâq (#)
Fr.: matière noire chaude
Any form of → dark matter which had a significant velocity dispersion (comparable to the velocity of light), when the Universe first became → matter-dominated.
Fr.: matière intergalactique
Very low density material found indirectly in the space between galaxies. → intergalactic absorption.
→ intergalactic; → matter.
Fr.: matière interplanétaire
Material existing in the space between solar system planets. It includes interplanetary gas and dust.
→ interplanetary; → matter.
Fr.: matière interstellaire
The gas and dust that exists in open space between the stars. See also → interstellar medium.
→ interstellar; → matter.
lambda cold dark matter model
Fr.: modèle ΛCDM
The → standard model of → Big Bang that incorporates both → dark matter and → dark energy. See also → cold dark matter (CDM).
→ lambda, → cosmological constant; → cold; → dark; → matter; → model.
mâdde-ye tâbân (#)
Fr.: matière lumineuse
Ordinary baryonic matter that can emit electromagnetic radiation, as opposed to → dark matter.