Fr.: potentiel chimique
For a given component in a → gas mixture, the change in → Gibbs free energy (G) with respect to change in amount of the component (n), when pressure, temperature, and amounts of other components remain constant: ∂G/∂n. Components are in equilibrium if their chemical potentials are equal.
Fr.: potentiel électrique
The amount of → work required to move a unit → electric charge from → infinity to a specific point against an → electric field. The → SI unit of electric potential is → joules per → coulomb, otherwise known as → volt.
electric scalar potential
tavand-e marpeli-ye barqi
Fr.: potentiel électrique scalaire
A potential φ defined so that the → electric field E is expressed by a combination of its → gradient and the variation of the → magnetic vector potential over time: E = -∇φ -∂A/∂t.
Fr.: potentiel électromagnétique
The combination of both → electric scalar potential and → magnetic vector potential.
→ electromagnetic; → potential.
Fr.: surface équipotentielle
An imaginary surface surrounding a body, or group of bodies, over which the gravitational field is of constant strength and, at all points, is directed perpendicular to the surface. For a single star the surface is spherical. In a close binary system the equipotential surface of the components interact to become hourglass-shaped. → Roche lobe; → Lagrangian points.
Fr.: potentiel d'excitation
In quantum mechanics, the energy that is necessary to change a system from a → ground state to a given → excited state; also called excitation energy.
→ excitation; → potential.
gravitational potential energy
kâruž-e tavand-e gerâneši
Fr.: énergie potentielle gravitationnelle
1) The energy that an object possesses because of its position in a
→ gravitational field, especially an object near the
surface of the Earth where the → gravitational acceleration
can be assumed to be constant, at about 9.8 m s-2.
→ gravitational; → potential; → energy.
Fr.: potentiel d'ionisation
The energy required to remove an electron from an isolated atom or molecule. The ionization potential for hydrogen is 13.6 eV, which corresponds to an ultraviolet ionizing photon with a wavelength of 912 A. Also called → ionization energy.
→ ionization; → potential.
Fr.: potentiel cinétique
Same as → Lagrangian function.
Fr.: potentiel de l'effet de lentille gravitationnelle
An important quantity in the characterization of → gravitational lensing. The lensing potential is obtained by projecting the three-dimensional Newtonian potential on the lens plane and by properly re-scaling it. It is a two-dimensional analog to the → gravitational potential.
magnetic vector potential
tavand-e bordâri-ye meqnâtisi
Fr.: vecteur potentiel magnétique
A vector field A defined so that the → magnetic field B is given by its → curl: B = ∇ x A.
Fr.: potentiel newtonien
A potential in a field of force obeying the inverse-square law such as → gravitational potential.
1) A latent ability that may or may not be developed; possibility.
From L.L. potentialis "potential," from L. potentia "power," potis "powerful, able, capable;" cognate with Av. paiti- "lord, husband;" Mod.Pers. -bad (sepah-bad "general, commander of an army"); Skt. páti- "master, husband;" Gk. posis "husband;" Lith. patis "husband."
Tavand, from tav- + -vand. The first component tav-
is the stem of tavân "power, strength," tavânestan "to be powerful,
able;" variants tâv, tâb, (dialects) tew "power;" Mid.Pers. tuwan
"power, might;" O.Pers. tav- "to have power, to be strong, to be able,"
tauman- "power, strength," tunuvant- "powerful;"
Av. tauu- (tu-) "to be able, strong,"
tavah- "power," təviši- "strength" (Mod.Pers.
tuš "power, ability");
Skt. tavi- "to be strong, to have authority,"
tavas-, tavisa- "strong, energetic," tavisi- "power, strength;"
Gk. taus, saos "healthy;" L. tumere "to be swollen;" PIE
*teu- "to swell, be strong." The second component -vand
a suffix of adjectives and agent nouns, → actual.
Fr.: barrière de potentiel
Region in a field of force in which the potential is such that a particle, which is subject to the field, encounters opposition to its passage.
Fr.: densité potentielle
Of a fluid parcel at pressure P, the density that it would acquire if adiabatically brought to a reference pressure.
Fr.: différence de potentiel
Between two points, the work done in taking the unit test object from one point to the other. Potential is a scalar quantity.
→ potential; → difference.
Fr.: énergie potentielle
Of a system, the work done in changing the system from some standard configuration to its present state. Thus, if a body of mass m is raised vertically through a height h, the work done, mgh, is the increase in potential energy.
potential energy curve
xam-e kâruž-e tavand
Fr.: courbe de l'energie potentielle
A plot that displays the → potential energy of a moving body as a function of its position. It is explained by the → conservation of energy and the conversion of potential energy into → kinetic energy and vice versa.
Fr.: champ de potentiel
A field that has a → potential. A continuous → vector fieldA in a domain D is a potential field in D if and only if its → work around every closed curve C contained in D is zero: ∫A.ds = 0. Examples include the → gravitational field and the → electrostatic field.
Fr.: gradient de potentiel
At a point, the rate of change of potential V, with distance x, measured in the direction in which the variation is a maximum. The intensity F of the field is proportional to the potential gradient, but is oppositely directed: F = -dV/dx.