An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



Number of Results: 18 Search : resonance
corotation resonance
  باز‌آوایی ِ هم‌چرخش   
bâzâvâyi-ye ham-carxeš

Fr.: résonance de corotation   

That condition of a → galactic disk at an orbital radius in which the → angular velocity of the disk equals the → pattern speed. It is significant that the spiral wave pattern rotates as a rigid body (ΩP = const), whereas the galactic disk rotates differentially (Ω is a function of galactocentric distance r). The distance rC at which the two angular velocities coincide (Ω(rC) = ΩP) is referred to as the → corotation radius. The corotation resonance and its position within the galaxy is one of the fundamental properties of a spiral galaxy.

corotation; → resonance.

inner Lindblad resonance (ILR)
  باز‌آوایی ِ لیندبلاد ِ درونی   
bâzâvâyi-ye Lindblad-e daruni

Fr.: résonance de Lindblad interne   

A → Lindblad resonance expressed by: Ωp = Ω - κ/m.

inner; → Lindblad resonance.

Landau resonance
  باز‌آوایی ِ لانداؤ   
bâzâvâyi-ye Landau

Fr.: résonance de Landau   

For parallel propagating → electrostatic waves in a → plasma, the → resonance which occurs when the particle velocity equals the parallel phase velocity of the wave.

Landau damping; → damping.

Laplace resonance
  باز‌آوایی ِ لاپلاس   
bâzâvâyi-ye Laplace

Fr.: résonance de Laplace   

An → orbital resonance that makes a 4:2:1 period ratio among three bodies in orbit. The → Galilean satellites → Io, → Europa, → Ganymede are in the Laplace resonance that keeps their orbits elliptical. This interaction prevents the orbits of the satellites from becoming perfectly circular (due to tidal interactions with Jupiter), and therefore permits → tidal heating of Io and Europa. For every four orbits of Io, Europa orbits twice and Ganymede orbits once. Io cannot keep one side exactly facing Jupiter and with the varying strengths of the tides because of its elliptical orbit, Io is stretched and twisted over short time periods.

This commensurability was first pointed out by Pierre-Simon Laplace, → Laplace; → resonance.

Lindblad resonance
  باز‌آوایی ِ لیندبلاد   
bâzâvâyi-ye Lindblad

Fr.: résonance de Lindblad   

A kinematic resonance hypothesized to explain the existence of galactic → spiral arms. It occurs when the frequency at which a star encounters the spiral → density wave is a multiple of its → epicyclic frequency. Orbital resonances occur at the location in the disk where Ωp = Ω ± κ/m, where Ωp is → pattern speed, κ → epicyclic frequency, and m an integer representing the number of spiral arms. The minus sign corresponds to the inner Lindblad resonance (ILR) and the plus sign to the outer Lindblad resonance (OLR). The corotation resonance corresponds to Ωp = Ω. In general, the Lindblad resonances are defined for two spiral arms (m = 2), and low order. There are other less important resonances corresponding to higher m values. These resonances tend to increase the object's orbital eccentricity and to cause its longitude of periapse to line up in phase with the perturbing force. Lindblad resonances drive spiral density waves both in galaxies (where stars are subject to forcing by the spiral arms themselves) and in Saturn's rings (where ring particles are subject to forcing by Saturn's moons).

After the originator of the model, Bertil Lindblad (1895-1965), a Swedish astronomer, who made important contributions to the study of the rotation of the Galaxy; → resonance.

Lorentz resonance
  باز‌آوایی ِ لورنتز   
bâzâvâyi-ye Lorentz

Fr.: résonance de Lorentz   

A repeated electromagnetic force on an electrically charged ring particle, nudging the particle in the same direction and at the same point in its orbit. Lorentz resonances are especially important for tiny ring particles whose charge-to-mass ratio is high and whose orbit periods are a simple integer fraction of the rotational period of the planet's magnetic field (Ellis et al., 2007, Planetary Ring Systems, Springer).

Lorentz; → resonance.

magnetic resonance
  بازاوایی ِ مغناتیسی   
bâzâvâyi-ye meqnâtisi (#)

Fr.: résonance magnétique   

A phenomenon exhibited by certain atoms whereby they absorb energy at specific (resonant) frequencies when subjected to alternating magnetic fields.

magnetic; → resonance.

natural resonance
  باز‌آوایی ِ زاستاری   
bâzâvâyi-ye zâstâri

Fr.: résonance naturelle   

A resonance such that the period of the driving force is the same as the natural period of the system.

natural; → resonance.

nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)
  باز‌آوایی ِ مغناتیسی ِ هسته‌ای   
bâzâvâyi-ye meqnâtisi-ye haste-yi

Fr.: résonance magnétique nucléaire   

An analysis technique applied to some atomic nuclei that have the property to behave as small magnets and respond to the application of a magnetic field by absorbing or emitting electromagnetic radiation. When nuclei which have a magnetic moment (such as 1H, 13C, 29Si, or 31P) are submitted to a constant magnetic field and at the same time to a radio-frequency alternating magnetic field, the nuclear magnetic moment is excited to higher energy states if the alternating field has the specific resonance frequency. This technique is especially used in spectroscopic studies of molecular structure and in particular provides valuable information in medicine that can be used to deduce the structure of organic compounds.

nuclear; → magnetic; → resonance.

orbital resonance
  باز‌آوایی ِ مداری   
bâzâvâyi-ye madâri

Fr.: résonance orbitale   

The situation in which two orbiting objects exert a regular, periodic gravitational influence on each other and therefore their orbital frequencies are related by a ratio of two small → integers. Orbital resonance often results in an unstable interaction in which bodies exchange momentum and shift orbits until the resonance disappears. The resonance increases the eccentricity until a body approaches a planet too closely and the body is slung away.

orbital; → resonance.

outer Lindblad resonance (OLP)
  باز‌آوایی ِ لیندبلاد ِ برونی   
bâzâvâyi-ye Lindblad-e boruni

Fr.: résonance de Lindblad externe   

A → Lindblad resonance expressed by: Ωp = Ω + κ/m.

outer; → Lindblad resonance.

bâzâvâyi (#)

Fr.: résonance   

1) The state of a → mechanical system in which the → amplitude of → oscillation is increased when it is subjected to stimulus from another source at or near its own natural → frequency.
2) The condition of an electrical circuit with respect to a given frequency in which the net reactance is zero and the current flow a maximum.
3) A relationship in which the → orbital period of one body is related to that of another by a simple integer fraction, such as 1/2, 2/3, 3/5. → Laplace resonance, → Lindblad resonance, → resonance orbit .
4) → resonance particle.

Resonance, from M.Fr. resonance, from L. resonantia "echo," from resonare "to resound," from re- "again, back" + sonare "to sound."

Bâzâvâyi, from bâz- "again, back," → re-, + âvâ "voice, sound" (related to âvâz "voice, sound, song," bâng "voice, sound, clamour" (Mid.Pers. vâng), vâžé "word;" Av. vacah- "word," vaocanghê "to decalre" (by means of speech), from vac- "to speak, say;" cf. Skt. vakti "speaks, says," vacas- "word;" Gk. epos "word;" L. vox "voice;" PIE base *wek- "to speak") + -yi noun suffix.

resonance capture
  گیر-اُفت ِ باز‌آوایی   
gir-oft-e bâzâvâyi

Fr.: capture résonante   

Capture by an atomic nucleus of a particle whose energy is equal to one of the energy levels of the nucleus.

resonance; → capture.

resonance frequency
  بسامد ِ باز‌آوایی   
basâmad-e bâzâvâyi

Fr.: fréquence de résonance   

The frequency at which a system is in → resonance.

resonance; → frequency.

resonance line
  خط ِ باز‌آوایی   
xatt-e bâzâvâyi

Fr.: raie de résonance   

For a particular atom, the spectral line corresponding to the longest wavelength arising from a transition between the ground state and an excited state.

resonance; → line.

resonance orbit
  مدار ِ باز‌آوایی   
madâr-e bâzâvâyi

Fr.: orbite de résonance   

An orbit which is in → orbital resonance with another orbit.

resonance; → orbit.

resonance particle
  ذرّه‌ی ِ باز‌آوایی   
zarre-e bâzâvâyi

Fr.: particule de résonance   

A hadronic particle which exists for only a very brief time (10-23 seconds) before decaying into hadrons; also called resonance. The existence of a resonance cannot be observed directly; it can only be inferred from studying the longer-lived products of its decay.

resonance; → particle.

resonance region neutron
  نوترون ِ ناحیه‌ی ِ باز‌آوایی   
notron-e nâhiye-ye bâzâvâyi

Fr.: neutron dans la région de résonance   

A neutron with an energy between 1 eV and 0.01 MeV.

resonance; → region; → neutron.