An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



Number of Results: 19 Search : sequence
arithmetic sequence
  پی‌آیه‌ی ِ حسابی   
peyâye-ye hesâbi

Fr.: suite arithmétique   

arithmetic progression.

arithmetic; → sequence.

peyâmad (#)

Fr.: conséquence   

A phenomenon that follows and is caused by some previous phenomenon.

From O.Fr. consequence "result," from L. consequentia, from consequentem (nom. consequens), prp. of consequi "to follow after," from &arr; com- "with" + sequi "to follow," (cf. Skt. sacate "accompanies, follows," Av. hacaiti, Gk. hepesthai "to follow"), from PIE base *sekw- "to follow".

Peyâmad, from pey "after; footstep; foot" (Mid.Pers. pay "step, after," O.Pers. nipadiy "on the track of, close after," from ni-, → ni- (PIE), + padiy, from pad- "foot", Av. paδa- "step, footstep," Skt. padá- "step, foorstep;" cf. Gk. pos, L. pes; PIE root *pod-/*ped-) + âmad "to come, arrive," shortened infinitive of âmadan, Mid.Pers. âmatan, O.Iranian *āgmatani, O.Pers., Av. gam- "to come; to go," Av. jamaiti "goes," Skt. gamati "goes," Gk. bainein "to go, walk, step," L. venire "to come," Tocharian A käm- "to come," O.H.G. queman "to come," E. come; PIE root *gwem- "to go, come."

Fibonacci sequence
  پی‌آیه‌ی ِ فیبوناچی   
peyâye-ye Fibonacci

Fr.: suite de Fibonacci   

An infinite sequence of integers, starting with 0 and 1, where each element is the sum of the two previous numbers. For example: 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144, ... As the sequence develops, the ratio of the consecutive terms converges to the → golden ratio, about 1.618.

Leonardo Pisano Fibonacci (1170-1250), medieval Italian mathematician who wrote Liber abaci (1202; Book of the Abacus), the first European work on Indian and Arabian mathematics, which introduced "Arabic" numerals in Europe; → sequence.

galaxy main sequence
  رشته‌ی ِ فریست ِ کهکشانها   
rešte-ye farist-e kahkešânhâ

Fr.: séquence principale des galaxies   

A scaling relation between the → star formation rate (SFR) in galaxies and the total stellar mass (M*) of the galaxies. This relation, colloquially called the "galaxy main sequence," extends over several orders of magnitudes in M* and out to → high redshifts, with a modest scatter of ~ 0.3 dex which includes both intrinsic scatter and measurement uncertainties. The existence of such tight scatter at all observed epochs suggests that most galaxies assembled their stellar mass fairly steadily rather than predominantly in → starburst episodes, implying that → mergers have a sub-dominant contribution to the global star formation history (Wuyts et al., 2011 ApJ 742, 96).

galaxy; → main; → sequence.

geometric sequence
  پی‌آیه‌ی ِ هندسی   
peyâye-ye hendesi

Fr.: suite géométrique   

geometric progression.

geometric; → sequence.

harmonic sequence
  پی‌آیه‌ی ِ هماهنگ   
peyâye-ye hamâhang

Fr.: suite harmonique   

harmonic progression.

harmonic; → sequence.

Hubble sequence
  پی‌آیه‌ی ِ هابل   
peyâye-ye Hubble

Fr.: séquence de Hubble   

A classification scheme in which galaxies are ordered into a sequence based on their morphology. Same as the → Hubble classification.

Hubble; → sequence.

lower main sequence
  رشته‌ی ِ فریست ِ زیرین   
rešte-ye farist-e zirin

Fr.: séquence principale inférieure   

A → main sequence star whose mass is less than 1.5 Msun. Lower main sequence stars generate their energy chiefly through the → proton-proton chain. The core is surrounded by a → radiative zone above which lies a → convective envelope. In such stars the → opacity at the surface is high because of the low → surface temperature. Therefore, radiation cannot carry all the radiation because of high opacity. Thus, energy transfer takes place by → convection to the outer layer.

lower; → main; → sequence.

main sequence
  رشته‌ی ِ فریست   
ršte-ye farist

Fr.: séquence principale   

An evolutionary stage in the life of a star when it generates its energy by the conversion of hydrogen to helium via → nuclear fusion in its core. Stars spend 90% of their life on the main sequence. On the → Hertzsprung-Russell diagram it appears as a track running from top left (high temperature, high luminosity, high mass) to lower right (low temperature, low luminosity, low mass). See also → zero age main sequence (ZAMS), → terminal age main sequence (TAMS).

main; → sequence.

main-sequence fitting
  سزکرد ِ رشته‌ی ِ فریست   
sazkard-e reshteh-ye farist

Fr.: ajustement par la séquence principale   

The method of determining the distance to a star cluster by overlaying its main sequence on the theoretical zero-age main sequence and noting the difference between the cluster's apparent magnitude and the zero-age main sequence's absolute magnitude.

main sequence; → fitting.

main-sequence turnoff
  رهگشت ِ رشته‌ی ِ فریست   
rahgašt-e rešte-ye farist

Fr.: tournant final de la séquence principale   

The point on the → Hertzsprung-Russell diagram of a star cluster at which stars begin to leave the → main sequence and move toward the → red giant branch. The main-sequence turnoff is a measure of age. In general, the older a star cluster, the fainter the main-sequence turnoff. Same as → turnoff point.

main sequence; → turnoff.

post-main sequence star
  ستاره‌ی ِ پسا-رشته‌ی ِ فریست   
setâre-ye pasâ-rešte-ye farist

Fr.: étoile post séquence principale   

A star that has evolved off the → main sequence.

post-; → main sequence; → star.

pre-main sequence binary
  درین ِ پیش-رشته‌ی ِ فریست   
dorin-e piš-rešte-ye farist

Fr.: binaire pré-séquence principale Markarian's Chain   

A → binary system whose components are → pre-main sequence stars.

pre-; → main sequence; → binary.

pre-main sequence B[e] star (HAeB[e])
  ستاره‌یِ B[e]ی ِ پیش-رشته-ی فریست   
setâre-ye B[e]-ye piš-rešte-ye farist

Fr.: étoile B[e] pré-séquence principale   

A → Herbig AeBe star displaying → forbidden emission lines in its spectrum.

pre-; → main; → sequence; → B[e] star.

pre-main sequence star
  ستاره‌ی ِ پیش-رشته‌ی ِ فریست   
setâre-ye piš-rešte-ye farist

Fr.: étoile pré-séquence principale   

A star that evolves in the → Hayashi phase and has not yet reached the → zero-age main sequence.

pre-; → main sequence, → star.

  پی‌آیه، رشته   
peyâyé, rešté

Fr.: 1) suite, séquence; 2) suite   

1) General: The following of one thing after another; succession; something that follows; connected line of events, ideas, etc.
2) Math.: A set of quantities that are ordered in some way, such as a1, a2, a3, .... A sequence is said to be known if a formula can be given for any particular term using the preceding terms or using its position in the sequence. Special types of sequences are commonly called → progressions. The terms of a sequence, when written as an indicated sum, form a → series.

M.E., from O.Fr. sequence "answering verses," from M.L. sequentia "a following, a succession," from L. sequentem (nominative sequens), pr.p. of sequi "to follow;" PIE base *sekw- "to follow;" cf. Pers. az from; Mid.Pers. hac "from;" Av. hac-, hax- "to follow," hacaiti "follows" (O.Pers. hacā "from;" Av. hacā "from, out of;" Skt. sácā "with"); Skt. sácate "accompanies, follows;" Gk. hepesthai "to follow;" Lith. seku "to follow."

Peyâyé, literally "that follows; a subsequent event," from pey "after; step," related to "foot" (Mid.Pers. pâd, pây, Av. pad-, Skt. pat, Gk. pos, gen. podos, L. pes, gen. pedis, P.Gmc. *fot, E. foot, Ger. Fuss, Fr. pied; PIE *pod-/*ped-) + ây- present stem of âmadan "to come, arrive, become" (Av. ay- "to go, to come," aēiti "goes;" O.Pers. aitiy "goes;" Skt. e- "to come near," eti "arrival;" L. ire "to go;" Goth. iddja "went," Lith. eiti "to go;" Rus. idti "to go") + nuance suffix.
Rešté "thread, line, rope, row," p.p. of reštan, risidan "to spin;" Mid.Pers. rištag "rope, string, thread;" Av. uruuaēs- "to turn around," uruuaēsa- "vortex in water;" cf. Skt. vréśī- "an appellation of waters;" Gk. rhiknos "crooked;" Lith. rišti "tie, bind;" O.H.G. rīho "knee-bend."

terminal age main sequence (TAMS)
  رشته‌ی ِ فریست با سن ِ پایانی   
rešte-ye farist bâ senn-e pâyâni

Fr.: séquence principale d'âge terminal   

The locus of stars on the → Hertzsprung-Russell diagram that are at the point of exhausting hydrogen in their cores. TAMS forms the upper luminosity boundary of the → main sequence strip. See also → zero age main sequence (ZAMS).

terminal; → age; → main; → sequence.

upper main sequence
  رشته‌ی ِ فریست ِ زبرین   
rešte-ye farist-e zabarin

Fr.: séquence principale supérieure   

A → main sequence star with a mass above 1.5 Msun. Upper main sequence stars have high central temperatures so that they produce their energy through the → CNO cycle. The outward energy flux is very high and therefore this flux cannot be maintained by → radiative transfer. Thus, upper main sequence stars have → convective cores. Outside the core, there is a → radiative zone. The mass of the convective core gradually diminishes as the hydrogen is consumed. The surface hydrogen is fully ionized and the → opacity is due to → electron scattering The opacity due to electron scattering.

upper; → main; → sequence.

zero age main sequence (ZAMS)
  رشته‌ی ِ فریست با سن ِ صفر   
rešte-ye farist bâ senn-e sefr

Fr.: séquence principale d'âge zéro   

The position on the → Hertzsprung-Russell diagram for newborn stars which have just started → hydrogen burning in their cores. The ZAMS forms the lower luminosity boundary of of the → main sequence strip. See also → terminal age main sequence (TAMS).

zero; → age; → main sequence.