canonical upper limit
hadd-e zabarin-e jerm
Fr.: limite supériure canonique
A physical upper mass limit near 150 Msun assumed for the stellar → initial mass function (Kroupa et al. 2012, arXiv:1112.3340).
bâlâ (#), zabarin (#)
Higher, as in place, position, pitch, or in a scale.
Fr.: haut du bras
The part of the → arm between the → shoulder and the → elbow.
Bâzu "arm," from Mid.Pers. bâzûk "arm;" Av. bāzu- "arm;" Mod.Pers. bâhu "stick, staff; arm;" cf. Skt. bāhu- "arm, forearm;" Gk. pechys "forearm, arm, ell;" O.H.G. buog "shoulder;" Ger. Bug "shoulder;" Du. boeg; O.E. bôg, bôh "shoulder, bough;" E. bough " a branch of a tree;" PIE *bhaghu- "arm").
havâsepehr-e zabarin, javv-e ~
Fr.: atmosphère supérieure
The general term applied to the atmosphere above the → troposphere.
→ upper; → atmosphere.
Fr.: culmination supérieure
Same as → superior culmination.
→ upper; → culmination.
tarâz-e bâlâ (#), ~ zabarin (#)
Fr.: niveau supérieur
In atomic physics, an initial energy state in an emission transition.
hadd-e bâlâ (#), ~ zabarin (#)
Fr.: limite supérieure
Of an integral operator, the point at which the integration ends.
upper main sequence
rešte-ye farist-e zabarin
Fr.: séquence principale supérieure
A → main sequence star with a mass above 1.5 Msun. Upper main sequence stars have high central temperatures so that they produce their energy through the → CNO cycle. The outward energy flux is very high and therefore this flux cannot be maintained by → radiative transfer. Thus, upper main sequence stars have → convective cores. Outside the core, there is a → radiative zone. The mass of the convective core gradually diminishes as the hydrogen is consumed. The surface hydrogen is fully ionized and the → opacity is due to → electron scattering The opacity due to electron scattering.
Fr.: manteau supérieur
The upper part of the Earth's → mantle which begins at the base of the → crust around 35 km and extends downward to about 410 km.
upper mass cut-off
bore-ye bâlâyi-ye jerm, ~ zabarin-e ~
Fr.: coupure aux masses élevées
Same as → upper mass limit.
upper mass limit
hadd-e bâlâyi-ye jerm, ~ zabarin-e ~
Fr.: limite supérieure de masses
The highest mass range admitted in a star formation model. The high mass end of the → initial mass function. The upper mass limit is a critical parameter in understanding → stellar populations, → star formation, and → massive star feedback in galaxies.
gozar-e zabarin (#)
Fr.: passage supérieur
The movement of a celestial body across a celestial meridian's upper branch. Same as → upper culmination.