extreme ultraviolet (EUV)
Fr.: ultraviolet extrême
A part of the ultraviolet radiation with wavelengths between 50 and 300 Angstöms.
far ultraviolet (FUV)
farâbanafš-e dur (#)
Fr.: ultraviolet lointain
Ultraviolet radiation in the wavelength range 912-2000 Å. See also → extreme ultraviolet.
International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE)
A satellite dedicated to spectroscopic observations of astronomical objects in ultraviolet wavelengths, launched in 1978. It was an international collaboration between → NASA, the → European Space Agency (ESA), and the United Kingdom's Science and Engineering Research Council. It operated until September 1996 and collected over 70,000 spectra. IUE consisted of a 45-cm telescope (f/15) equipped with two spectrographs operating in the ranges 1850-3300 Å and 1150-2000 Å. Each spectrograph had a high-resolution and a low-resolution mode with resolutions of about 0.2 Å and 6 Å respectively.
farâbanafš-e nazdik (#)
Fr.: proche ultraviolet
The longest wavelengths of the ultraviolet region, which are adjacent to the visible, from 200 to 350 nm.
axtaršenâsi-ye farâ-banafš, ~ ultar-banafš
Fr.: astronomie ultraviolette
The study of astronomical objects in the ultraviolet portions of the electromagnetic spectrum, in the waveband 3000 Å to about 10 Å. At these wavelengths, the atmosphere prevents ultraviolet radiation from reaching the Earth surface. Therefore ground-based observatories cannot observe in the ultraviolet. Only with the advent of space-based telescopes has this area of astronomy become available for research.
Fr.: catastrophe ultraviolette
A → paradox encountered in the classical theory of → thermal radiation (→ Rayleigh-Jeans law), whereby a → blackbody should radiate an infinite amount of energy at infinitely short wavelengths, in contradiction with what is observed. The problem was solved by Max Planck in 1900, who suggested that, rather than being continuous, the energy comes in discrete parcels called → quanta. The avoidance of the ultraviolet catastrophe was one of the first great achievements of → quantum mechanics.
fozuni-ye farâbanafš, ferehbud-e ultar-banafš
Fr.: excès ultraviolet
Ultraviolet emission from an object in excess of that expected for a reference. For example, → subdwarf stars show ultraviolet excess with respect to that expected from a star with → solar metallicity at a given → effective temperature. In this case, UV excess results from smaller → line blanketing in → population II stars.
setâre-ye farâbanafš, ~ ultar-banafš
Fr.: étoile ultraviolette
A star, such as O types or hot central stars of planetary nebulae, which radiates essentially in the ultraviolet part of the electromagnetic spectrum.
A color at the opposite end of the visible spectrum from red, an effect of light with a wavelength between 4000 and 4500 Å. → ultraviolet.
M.E., from O.Fr. violete, diminutive of viole "violet," from L. viola, akin to Gk. ion "violet."
Banafš "violet," related to banafšé "violet flower;" Mid.Pers. vanafšak "violet flower."
Fr.: couche violette
A layer of particles in the upper Martian atmosphere that scatter and absorbs electromagnetic radiation at shorter wavelengths, making the atmosphere opaque to blue, violet, and ultraviolet light.