An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 471 Search : ity
angular velocity
  تندا‌ی ِ زاویه‌ای   
tondâ-ye zâviye-yi

Fr.: vitesse angulaire   

A measure of the angular displacement per unit time. Of a particle traveling on a circular path or a rotating body, the ratio of the angle traversed to the amount of time it takes to traverse that angle: ω = dθ/dt. For a rigid body, all lines in it rotate through the same angle in the same time, and the angular velocity is the characteristic of the body as a whole. The angular velocity is related to the linear velocity by the equation v = rω, where r is the distance of the point from the rotation axis. → vector angular velocity.

angular; → velocity.


Fr.: anisoplanicité   

The departure from → isoplanicity.

an-; → isoplanicity.


Fr.: annularité   

The maximum phase of an → annular eclipse during which the Moon's entire disk is seen silhouetted against the Sun. Annularity is the period between second and → third contact during an annular eclipse. It can last from a fraction of a second to a maximum of 12 minutes 29 seconds (F. Espenak, NASA).

annular; → -ity.

anomalous luminosity effect
  اسکر ِ تابندگی ِ ناسان   
oskar-e tâbandegi-ye nâsân

Fr.: effet luminosité anormale   

Discrepant luminosity classes derived for the same → Am star when different criteria are used. Lore specifically, a luminosity criterion may indicate a → giant star, wheras another criterion indicates a → supergiant.

anomalous; → luminosity; → effect.

kamâbi (#)

Fr.: aridité   

A measure of the degree to which a climate lacks effective moisture.

Aridity, noun from → arid.

Kamâbi, noun from amâbi, → arid.

Aristarchus' inequality
  ناهموگی ِ اریستارخوس   
nâhamugi-ye Aristarchus

Fr.: inégalité d'Aristarque   

Put in modern notation, if α and β are acute angles and if β <α, then sin α / sin β <α / β < tan α / tan β. Aristarchus probably used this inequality to show that the Sun is between 18 and 20 times as far from the Earth as the Moon is.

Aristarchus of Samos (c.310-c.230 BC); → inequality.


Fr.: aspérité   

1) Roughness or unevenness of surface.
2) Physics: A microscopic projection on a metal surface resulting from normal surface finishing processes.
3) Geology: A site on a → fault surface where the two sides are held together by an area of higher strength than the areas surrounding it. When the stress on the fault exceeds the strength of the asperity, the asperity fails as an → earthquake.

M.E. asperite, from O.Fr. asperité "difficulty, painful situation," from L. asperitas, from asper "rough, harsh," of unknown origin.

From zaft "thick, gross, rude," (Steingass, Dehxodâ), + noun suffix -i.


Fr.: associativité   

Of or relating to association; state of being associative.

associative + → -ity.

asymptotic velocity
  تندای ِ ناهمساوی   
tondâ-ye nâhamsâvi

Fr.: vitesse asymptotique   

For → stellar winds, same as → terminal velocity.

asymptotic; → velocity.


Fr.: autorité   

1) The power to determine, adjudicate, or otherwise settle issues or disputes; jurisdiction; the right to control, command, or determine (
2) A person or body of persons in whom authority is vested, as a governmental agency (

author; → -ity.

Dâtârgân, from dâtâr, → author, + -gân, on the model of xodâygân "a great lord."

average velocity
  تندای ِ میانگین   
tondâ-ye miyângin

Fr.: vitesse moyenne   

The ratio of the displacement (Δx) of a particle, as it moves from point A to point B, to the corresponding time interval: v = Δx/Δt.

average; → velocity.

Balmer discontinuity
  ناپیوستگی ِ بالمر   
nâpeyvastegi-ye Bâlmer

Fr.: discontinuité de Balmer   

An abrupt decrease in the intensity of the continuum at the limit of the → Balmer series of hydrogen (at about 3650 Å), caused by the energy absorbed when electrons originally in the second → energy level are ionized. Same as → Balmer jump.

Balmer; → discontinuity.

baroclinic instability
  ناپایداری ِ فشارشیبی   
nâpâydâri-ye fešâršibi

Fr.: instabilité barocline   

1) A type of instability occurring within a rapidly → rotating star where non-axisymmetric motions can separate surfaces of constant pressure from → equipotential surfaces.
2) A hydrodynamic instability associated with a baroclinic layer of the atmosphere. It arises from temperature variation along the pressure surfaces. Baroclinic instability is associated with the vertical → shear of the mean flow, which is related to the horizontal temperature gradient by the thermal wind equation. Instabilities in a baroclinic region grow by converting potential energy associated with the mean horizontal temperature gradient into kinetic energy through ascending warm air and descending cold air (Rasmussen & Turner (eds.), Polar Lows, Cambridge Univ. Press, 2003).

baroclinic; → instability.


Fr.: baroclinie   

The state of stratification in a fluid in which surfaces of constant pressure do not coincide with those of constant density, but intersect. Where baroclinicity is zero, the fluid is → barotropic. Same as baroclinity.

baroclinic; → -ity.

barotropic instability
  ناپایداری ِ فشارگرد   
nâpâydâri-ye fešârgard

Fr.: instabilité barotrope   

A hydrodynamical instability that arises when the horizontal → shear gradient becomes very large. Barotropic instabilities grow by extracting kinetic energy from the mean flow field.

barotropic; → instability.

Bell's inequality
  ناهموگی ِ بل   
nâhamugi-ye Bell

Fr.: inégalité de Bell   

Any of a large number of inequality relations developed to study the → hidden variable hypothesis suggested in the → EPR paradox. Using Bell's inequalities, the → Aspect experiment showed that no local hidden variable theory can make predictions in agreement with those of quantum mechanics. If, in a measurement, the inequality is violated, the measurement is in agreement with the predictions of the quantum theory. If the equality is satisfied, it suggests that a classical, causal, and local model is adequate to explain the outcome of the measurements. See also → quantum entanglement.

John Stewart Bell (1928-1990); → inequality.

Big Bang singularity
  تکینی ِ بیگ بنگ   
takini-ye Big Bang

Fr.: singularité du Big Bang   

A hypothetical state of → infinite energy density representing an infinite → gravitational field and infinite → space-time curvature. The singularity arises from using Einstein's theory of → general relativity concerning gravity. We know, however, that when the density and heat become extremely large, quantum physics of gravity becomes important. Yet Einstein's equations ignore quantum effects. In other words, in certain extreme conditions, Einstein's equations do not apply.

Big Bang; → singularity.


Fr.: bimodalité   

The quality or state of being → bimodal.

bimodal; → -ity.


Fr.: binarité   

The quality or condition of being binary.

binary; → -ity.


Fr.: biodiversité   

The → variety of → plant and → animal → species in a particular → environment.

bio-; → diversity.

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