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priority parini Fr.: priorité The condition or quality of being earlier in time or occurrence, or being regarded as more important. |
probability šavânâyi Fr.: probabilité 1) General: The quality or fact of being probable. A strong
→ likelihood or chance of something. |
probability curve xam-e šavânâyi Fr.: courbe de probabilité A curve that describes the distribution of probability over the values of a random variable. → probability; → curve. |
probability density function karyâ-ye cagâli-ye šavânâyi Fr.: fonction de densité de probabilité A mathematical function whose integral over any interval gives the probability that a continuous → random variable has values in this interval. Also known as → density function, frequency function, → probability function. → probability; → density; → function. |
probability distribution vâbâžeš-e šavânâyi Fr.: distribution de probabilité The function that describes the range of possible values that a random variable can attain and the probability that the value of the random variable is within any (measurable) subset of that range. → probability; → distribution. |
probability function karyâ-ye šavânâyi Fr.: fonction de probabilité A function that represents a probability distribution in terms of integrals. Also called probability density function or density function. → probability; → function. |
probability theory negare-ye šavânâyi Fr.: théorie des probabilités A branch of → mathematics with its own axioms and methods, which is based on the concept of → randomness and is concerned with the possible outcome of given → events and their relative → likelihoods and → distributions. → probability; → theory. |
projected rotational velocity tondâ-ye carxeši-ye farâšândé Fr.: vitesse rotationnelle projetée The → angular velocity of a star deduced from the → rotational broadening of its → spectral lines. It is expressed as v sini, where i is the → inclination of the rotational axis with respect to the normal to the → plane of the sky. The real equatorial rotational velocity can be determined only if the inclination of the rotational axis is known. Projected, p.p. of → project; → rotational; → velocity. |
proportionality barpârešigi Fr.: proportionalité Math.: A relationship bewteen two quantities such that if one quantity changes the other changes in the same proportion; denoted as y ∝ x. → proportional + → -ity. |
proportionality constant pâyâ-ye barpârešigi Fr.: constante de proportionalité Math.: A → constant that converts a proportionality into an → equation. Thus the proportionality constant k converts the proportionality y ∝ x into the equation y = kx. → proportionality + → constant. |
publicity hamegânigi Fr.: publicité 1) Extensive mention in the news media or by word of mouth or other means of communication. |
pulsational instability nÃ¢pÃ¢ydÃ¢ri-ye tapeši Fr.: instabilitÃ© pulsationnelle A term used to describe irregularly spaced, fine-scale structure in optically thick rings. The process relies on a combination of viscosity and self-gravity of ring material to produce this fine structure. Also known as overstability (Ellis et al., 2007, Planetary Ring Systems, Springer). → pulsational; → instability. |
pulsational pair-instability supernova abar-novâ-ye nâpâydâri-ye tapeši-ye joft,
abar-now-axtar-e ~ ~ ~ Fr.: supernova à instabilité pulsationnelle de paires A → supernova resulting from the → pair instability that generates several successive explosions. According to models, a first pulse ejects many solar masses of hydrogen layers as a shell. After the first explosion, the remaining core contracts and searches for a stable burning state. When the next explosion occurs a few years later, several solar masses of material are again ejected, which collide with the earlier ejecta. This collision can radiate 10^{50} erg of light, about a factor of ten more than an ordinary → core-collapse supernova. After each pulse, the remaining core contracts, radiates neutrinos and light, and searches again for a stable burning state. Later ejections have lower mass, but have higher energy. They quickly catch up with the first shell, where the collision dissipates most of their kinetic energy as radiation. The first SNe from → Population III stars are likely due to pulsational pair instability (Woosley et al. 2007, Nature 450, 390). See also → pair-instability supernova. → pulsational; → pair; → instability. |
purity žâvi (#) Fr.: pureté The degree to which → impurity is incorporated into a semiconductor material. M.E., from O.Fr. pureté, from L.L. puritatem (nom. puritas) "cleanness, pureness," from purus "clean;" cf. Av. pūitika- "serving for purification," Mod.Pers. pâk "clean;" Skt. pavi- "to become clean," pávate "purifies, cleanses;" O.H.G. fouwen, fewen "to sift;" PIE base *peu- "to purify, cleanse." Žâvi, noun from adj. žâv "pure." |
quality cunâ (#), cuni (#) Fr.: qualité A distinguishing characteristic, property, or attribute of something. M.E. qualite, from O.Fr. qualite (Fr. qualité), from L. qualitas, from qual(is) "of what sort?" + → -ity. Cunâ, cuni, from Mid.Pers. cigôn "how?," cigônêh "nature, character," O.Pers/Av. ci- "what, any," collateral stem to ka- "who?, what?" (cf. Skt. ka-; Gk. po-; L. quo-; E. what, who; PIE *qwos/*qwes) + Av. gaona- "color" (Mid.Pers. gônak "kind, species"). |
quantity candâ (#), candi (#) Fr.: quantité The property of magnitude. M.E., from rom O.Fr. quantite (Fr. quantité), from L. quantitatem (nominative quantitas), from quant(us) "how much?" + -itas, → -ity. Candâ, candi "quantity," Mid.Pers. candih "amount, quantity," from cand "how many, how much; so many, much;" O.Pers. yāvā "as long as;" Av. yauuant- [adj.] "how great?, how much?, how many?," yauuat [adv.] "as much as, as far as;" cf. Skt. yāvant- "how big, how much;" Gk. heos "as long as, until." |
quantum gravity gerâni-ye kuântomi Fr.: gravité quantique A theory of gravity, yet to be developed, that would properly include quantum mechanics. Because of the tensor nature of general relativity, it is not renormalizable as a field theory in perturbation from flat space. So far various attempts to quantize general relativity have been unsuccessful. |
quantum unitarity yekâyigi-ye kuântomi Fr.: unitarité quantique A property in → quantum mechanics whereby in a quantum system the sum of all probabilities of all possible outcomes must be 1. Quantum unitarity makes the modulous of a → quantum state invariant with time. |
radial velocity tondâ-ye šo'â'i Fr.: vitesse radiale The component of a three-dimensional velocity vector of an object directed along the line of sight. It is measured by examining the Doppler shift of lines in the spectrum of astronomical objects. |
radial velocity curve xam-e tondâ-ye šo'â'i Fr.: courbe de vitesse radiale A curve describing the variation of the radial velocity of a star, due to the Doppler effect, under the gravitational effect of a secondary body (companion or exoplanet). The amplitude of these variations depends upon the mass of the secondary and its distance from the star. → radial velocity; → curve. |
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