# An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and AstrophysicsEnglish-French-Persian

## فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

### M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

Homepage

Number of Results: 3105 Search : on
 metallicity distribution function (MDF)   کریای ِ واباژش ِ فلزیگی   karyâ-ye vâbâžeš-e felezigiFr.: fonction de distribution de métallicité   A plot representing the number of stars (or systems) per metallicity interval, usually expressed in [Fe/H] (abundance of → iron relative to → hydrogen).→ metallicity; → distribution; → function. meteoric ionization   یونش ِ شهاب‌سنگی، ~ ِ آسمان‌سنگی   yoneš-e šahâbsangi, ~ âsmânsangiFr.: ionisation météoritique   The ionization of air molecules by the heat generated when a meteorite enters the atmosphere.→ meteorite, → ionization. meteorological observation   نپاهش ِ هواشناختی   napâheš-e havâšenâxtiFr.: observation météorologique   Evaluation or measurement of one or more meteorological elements.Meteorological, of or pertaining to → meteorology; → observation. method of small perturbations   روش ِ پرتورش‌های ِ کوچک   raveš-e parturešhâ-ye kucakFr.: méthode des petites perturbations   The linearization of the appropriate equations governing a system by the assumption of a steady state, with departures from that steady state limited to small perturbations. Also called perturbation method.→ method; → small; → perturbation. method of successive approximations   روش ِ نزدینش‌های ِ پیاپی   raveš-e nazdinešhâ-ye payâpeyFr.: méthode d'approximations successives   The solution of an equation or by proceeding from an initial approximation to a series of repeated trial solutions, each depending upon the immediately preceding approximation, in such a manner that the discrepancy between the newest estimated solution and the true solution is systematically reduced.→ method; → successive; → approximation. Metonic cycle   چرخه‌ی ِ متون   carxe-ye MetonFr.: cycle de Méton   A time interval lasting 235 → lunations, or about 19 → tropical years (235 = 19 x 12 + 7), after which → lunar phases recur on the same days of the year.Named after Meton of Athens, a Gk. mathematician, astronomer, geometer, and engineer who used it in 432 B.C., but it was known to the Babylonians by around 500 B.C. and to the Chinese around 600 B.C.; → cycle. MHD condition   بوتار ِ MHD   butâr-e MHDFr.: condition MHD Michelson interferometer   اندرزنش‌سنج ِ مایکلسون   andarzanešsanj-e MichelsonFr.: Interféromètre de Michelson   An apparatus that produces interference fringes by splitting a beam of monochromatic light so that one beam strikes a fixed mirror and the other a movable mirror. When the reflected beams are brought back together, an interference pattern results. It is used to measure very precise lengths, such as the wavelength of light, and for high-resolution spectroscopy.Named after Albert Abraham Michelson (1852-1931), German-American physicist, who built the interferometer for the → Michelson-Morley experiment of 1887; → interferometer.Andarzanešsanj, → interferometer. Michelson-Morley experiment   آزمایش ِ مایکلسون-مورلی   âzmâyeš-e Michelson-Morley (#)Fr.: expérience de Michelson-Morley   An experiment performed in 1887 to establish the presence or absence of an → ether, a medium through which light was supposed to travel. The experiment aimed to measure the speed of light coming from different directions. However no → ether drift was found. The null results obtained showed that the ether hypothesis was incorrect. Consequently, the theory of → special relativity, with its hypothesis that the speed of light is the same in all → inertial frames, reconciled the results of the Michelson-Morley experiment with the rest of physics.→ Michelson interferometer; Michelson received the Nobel Prize in 1907 for his work, the first American to receive the Prize in science. Edward Williams Morley (1838-1923), an American chemist; → experiment. micro Moon   ریز ماه   riz mâhFr.: pleine lune d'apogée   Same as → apogee full Moon.→ micro-; → Moon. micron   میکرون   mikron (#)Fr.: micron   A unit of length in the → metric system equal to one millionth of a → meter (10-6 m); symbol μm. Also called → micrometer. The average thickness of a human hair is about 50 μm (30-100 μm). The human eye cannot see anything smaller than 40 μm in size. Other small sizes: white blood cells = 15 μm; red blood cells = 8 μm; bacteria 2 μm.Coined 1880 in Fr. from Gk. mikron, neutral of mikros "small." micronova   ریز-نووا، ریز-نو‌اَختر   riz-novâ, riz-nowaxtarFr.: micronova   A localized → thermonuclear burst on the surface layers of an → accreting white dwarf. In comparison, classical → nova explosions are caused by global → thermonuclear runaways on the surface of such white dwarfs. Micronovae are less powerful than novae; they have been observed to release up to 1039 ergs of energy, that is approximately 106 times less than the energies released in classical novae (thus the term micronova describing these events). They are also much short-lived, lasting only several hours, while nova outbursts last for weeks. The micronova phenomenon is provoked by the accumulation of accreted matter on the poles of → white dwarfs under the confining effect of strong → magnetic fields (S. Scaringi et al., 2022, arXiv:2204.09073).→ micro-; → nova. microwave background radiation   تابش ِ پس‌زمینه‌ی ِ ریزموج   tâbeš-e paszamine-ye rizmowjFr.: rayonnement micro-onde du fond cosmique   Thermal radiation with a temperature of 2.73 K that is apparently uniformly distributed in the Universe. It is believed to be a redshifted remnant of the hot radiation that was in thermal equilibrium with matter during the first hundred thousand years after the Big Bang. Same as → cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation.→ microwave; → background; → radiation. microwave radiation   تابش ِ ریزموج   tâbeš-e rizmowj (#)Fr.: rayonnement micro-onde   Electromagnetic radiation carried by → microwaves.→ microwave; → radiation. migration   موژش، کوچ   mužeš, kuc (#)Fr.: migration   1) The process or act of migrating; a migratory movement. 2) For an astronomical body, the process or act of changing its place over considerably large distances under the effect of certain physical forces. See, for example, → orbital migration; → Type I migration; → Type II migration. 3) Chem.: A movement or change of position of atoms within a molecule (Dictionary.com).→ migrate; → -tion. Kuc "the act of moving from a dwelling, a place to another, decamping, migration." milli-arcsecond (mas)   میلی ثانیه‌ی ِ کمانی   mili sâniye-ye kamâniFr.: milliseconde d'arc   A unit of angle equal to one thousandth of an → arcsecond, or 1/3 600 000 degree.→ milli-; → arcsecond. millimeter-wave astronomy   اخترشناسی ِ موج‌های ِ میلی‌متری   axtaršenâsi-ye mowjhâ-ye milimetri (#)Fr.: astronomie millimétrique   That part of radio astronomy which uses electromagnetic waves in the range 1-10 millimeter to study various components of the Universe, in particular the chemistry of interstellar matter.→ millimeter wave; → astronomy. million   میلیون   milyon (#)Fr.: million   A thousand thousand (106).O.Fr. million, from It. millione, literally "a great thousand," augmentative of mille "thousand," from L. mille.Milyon, Loan from Fr. millisecond pulsar   پولسار ِ میلی‌ثانیه، تپار ِ ~   pulsâr-e milisâniyé (#), tapâr-e ~ (#)Fr.: pulsar milliseconde   A type of pulsar that spins around its axis every few thousands of a second. The prototype 1937+21, discovered in 1982, has a period of 1.56 milliseconds; i.e. it spins more than 600 times per second, the fastest so far found (Backer et al. 1982, Nature 300, 615). These pulsars are distinguished from typical pulsars by the extreme stability of their rotation period. It is thought that they have been rejuvenated by a "spin-up process" involving the accumulation of matter from a companion star. → recycled pulsar.→ milli-; → second; → pulsar. Milne-Eddington approximation   نزدینش ِ میلن-ادینگتون   nazdineš-e Milne-EddingtonFr.: approximation de Milne-Eddington   The approximation of a stellar atmosphere with a plane parallel grey atmosphere in radiative equilibrium. It is assumed that a spectral is formed in such a way that the ratio of the line absorption coefficient to the continuous absorption coefficient is constant with depth.→ Milne Universe; Arthur Stanley Eddington (1882-1944), prominent British astrophysicist; → approximation.