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place-value notation nemâdgân-e jâ-arezeši Fr.: notation positionnelle A mathematical notation system in which the → numerals get different values depending on their position relative to the other numerals. Same as → positional notation and → positional number system. |
Planck constant pâyâ-ye Planck (#) Fr.: constante de Planck A physical constant that determines the energy of quantum as a function of its frequency; symbol h. Also called → Planck's constant. On 16 November 2018, the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM) voted to redefine the kilogram by fixing the value of the Planck constant, thereby defining the kilogram in terms of the second and the speed of light. Starting 20 May 2019, the new value is exactly 6.626 070 15 × 10^{-34} J s. The → reduced Planck constant, ħ = h / 2π, is also called the → Dirac constant. |
Planck distribution vâbâžeš-e Planck Fr.: distribution de Planck The distribution of radiation with wavelength for a blackbody, given by → Planck's radiation law. → Planck; → distribution. |
Planck function karyâ-ye Planck Fr.: fonction de Planck Same as → Planck's blackbody formula. |
Planck's constant pâyâ-ye Planck (#) Fr.: constante de Planck |
Planck's radiation law qânun-e tâbeš-e Planck Fr.: loi du rayonnement de Planck An equation that expresses the energy radiated per unit area per unit time per unit wavelength range by a blackbody as a function of temperature. It is expressed by → Planck's blackbody formula. |
plane of polarization hâmon-e qotbeš Fr.: plan de polarisation In a → linearly polarized light, a plane perpendicular to the → plane of vibration and containing the direction of propagation of light. It is also the plane containing the direction of propagation and the magnetic vector (H) of the electromagnetic light wave. → plane; → polarization. |
plane of rotation hâmon-e carxeš Fr.: plan de rotation For a rotating object, the plane → perpendicular to the → rotation axis. |
plane of vibration hâmon-e šiveš Fr.: plan de vibration In a → linearly polarized light, a plane perpendicular to the → plane of polarization and containing the direction of propagation of light. It is also the plane containing the direction of propagation and the electric vector (E) of the electromagnetic light wave. → plane; → polarization. |
plane polarization qotbeš-e hâmoni Fr.: polarisation plane Same as → linear polarization. → plane; → polarization. |
planetary aberration birâheš-e sayyâreyi Fr.: aberration planétaire The difference between the true position of a planet and its apparent position, due to the time required for light to travel the distance from the planet to Earth. Correction for planetary aberration is necessary in determining orbits. → planetary; → aberration. |
planetary precession pišâyân-e sayyâre-yi Fr.: précession planétaire The motion of the → ecliptic plane caused by the gravitational influence of the other planets, mainly → Jupiter. The observational effect of planetary precession is similar to that of the → lunisolar precession. But planetary precession causes the → equinoxes to move along the ecliptic in the opposition direction (eastward) from that of luni-solar precession (westward) and at a much slower rate: 0''.12 per year. Same as → precession of ecliptic. → planetary; → precession. |
PLAnetary Transits and Oscillations of stars (PLATO) PLATO Fr.: PLATO A space observatory under development by the → European Space Agency for launch around 2024. Its objective is to detect and characterize → exoplanets by means of their → transit signature in front of a very large sample of → bright stars, and measure the seismic oscillations (→ asteroseismology) of the parent stars orbited by these planets in order to understand the properties of the exoplanetary systems. → planetary; → transit; → oscillation; → star. |
plano-concave lens adasi-ye taxt-kâv (#) Fr.: lentille plano-concave A → divergent lens composed of one concave surface and one plane surface. This type of lens has a negative focal point and produces a → virtual image. |
plano-convex lens adasi-ye taxt-kuž (#) Fr.: lentille plano-convexe A → convergent lens that has one flat side and one convex side. Plano-convex lenses focus parallel rays of light to a positive point, thus forming → real images. |
plasma oscillation naveš-e plâsmâ Fr.: oscillation de plasma The oscillatory motion of electrons in a neutral plasma around their equilibrium position while the ions remain at rest. When electrons are displaced by any kind of perturbation with respect to ions, a pair of positive and negative charged regions is formed. The Coulomb force accelerates back the displaced electrons, which get kinetic energy. The electrons overshoot their original positions by the same amount as their first displacement. → plasma; → oscillation. |
plasmon plâsmon Fr.: plasmon Physics: The quasiparticle resulting from the → quantization of → plasma oscillations. Plasmons are collective oscillations of free electrons inside or on surfaces of materials. |
plasmonics plâsmonik Fr.: plasmonique The research area dealing with the interaction of → plasmons and → photons and the technology of its practical use. Plasmonics represents one of the most active research fields at the interface of → nanotechnology and → optics. |
plastic deformation vâdiseš-e šukâyand Fr.: déformation plastique Permanent → deformation of a → solid subjected to a → stress. → plastic; → deformation. |
plate tectonics sâzânik-e pelâk Fr.: tectonique des plaques The theory supported by a wide range of evidence in which the Earth's crust is composed of several large, thin, relatively rigid plates that move relative to one another. The interaction of the plates at their boundaries causes seismic and tectonic activity along these boundaries. See also → continental drift. |
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