# An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and AstrophysicsEnglish-French-Persian

## فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

### M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 115 Search : ram
 reference frame   چارچوب ِ بازبرد   cârcub-e bâzbordFr.: système de référence   A set of axes to which positions and motions in a system can be referred. Same as → frame of reference.→ reference; → frame. rest frame   چارچوب ِ آرم   cârcub-e âramFr.: référentiel au repos, repère ~   The → frame of reference with respect to which an object or observer is at rest. A clock in that particular rest frame registers what is by definition → proper time. See also → moving frame.→ rest; → frame. Rossby parameter   پارامون ِ روسبی   pârâmun-e RossbyFr.: paramètre de Rossby   The northward variation of the Coriolis parameter, arising from the sphericity of the Earth. size parameter   پارامون ِ اندازه   pârâmun-e andâzéFr.: paramètre de taille   A quantity that defines the type of → scattering.→ size; → parameter. slope parameter   پارامون ِ شیب   pârâmun-e šibFr.: paramètre de pente   In a → power-law distribution or → regression, the → exponent that represents the effect of the → independent variable, x, on the → dependent variable, y. X has no association with y if the slope parameter = 0 and x has strong association with y if the slope parameter is large.→ slope; → parameter. space-time diagram   نمودار ِ فضا-زمان   nemudâr-e fazâ-zamân (#)Fr.: diagramme espace-temps   A simple way of representing the → space-time continuum, usually including time and only one spatial dimension. The curve of a particle's equation of motion on a space-time diagram is called a → world line. Same as → Minkowski diagram.→ space; → time; → diagram. spectrogram   بیناب-نگاشت   binân-negâš (#)Fr.: spectrogramme   A plot of the intensity of light at different wavelengths obtained using a spectrograph.→ spectro-; → -gram. spectroheliogram   هور-بیناب‌نگاشت   hur-binâbnegâštFr.: spectrohéliogramme   An image of the Sun taken in the light of one particular wavelength.→ spectro-; → heliogram. spectroscopic Hertzsprung-Russell diagram (sHRD)   نمودار ِ بینابنماییک ِ هرتسپرونگ-راسل   nemudâr-e binâbnemâyik-e Hertzsprung--RussellFr.: diagramme spectroscopique de Hertzsprung-Russell   A spacial → Hertzsprung-Russell diagram (HRD) which is independent of distance and extinction measurements. The sHRD is derived from the classical HRD by replacing the luminosity (L) to the quantity ℒ = T 4eff/g which is the inverse of the flux-weighted gravity introduced by Kudritzki et al. (2003). The value of ℒ can be calculated from stellar atmosphere analyses without prior knowledge of the distance or the extinction. In contrast to the classical Teff-log g diagram (→ Kiel diagram), the sHRD sorts stars according to their proximity to the → Eddington limit, because ℒ is proportional to the Eddington factor Γ = L/LEdd according to the relation ℒ = (1/4πσG)(L/M) = (c/(σκ)Γ, where σ is the → Stefan-Boltzmann constant, κ is the electron → scattering  → opacity in the stellar envelope, and the other symbols have their usual meanings (Langer, N., Kudritzki, R. P., 2014, A&A 564, A52, arXive:1403.2212, Castro et al., 2014, A&A 570, L13. Stokes parameters   پارامون‌های ِ استوکس   pârâmunhâ-ye StokesFr.: paramètres de Stokes   Four parameters which are needed to fully describe the → polarization state of → electromagnetic radiation. They involve the maximum and minimum intensity, the ellipticity, and the direction of polarization. The four Stokes parameters are traditionally defined as follows: I ≡ total intensity. Q ≡ I0 - I90 = difference in intensities between → horizontal and → vertical  → linearly polarized components. U ≡ I+45 - I-45 = difference in intensities between linearly polarized components oriented at +45° and -45° (or 135°). V ≡ Ircp - Ilcp = difference in intensities between right and left → circularly polarized polarized components.→ Stokes; → parameter. Tisserand's parameter   پارامون ِ تیسران   pârâmun-e TisserandFr.: paramètre de Tisserand   In celestial mechanics, a combination of orbital elements commonly used to distinguish between comets and asteroids. Objects whose Tisserand's parameter value is smaller than 3 are considered to be dynamically cometary, and those with a value larger than 3 asteroidal. Also called Tisserand's invariant.Named after François Félix Tisserand (1845-1896), French astronomer, Director of the Paris Observatory (1892). Toomre parameter   پارامون ِ تومره   pârâmun-e ToomreFr.: paramètre de Toomre   A quantity that measures the stability of a differentially rotating disk of matter against → gravitational collapse. It is expressed by the relation: Q = csκ / πGΣ, where cs is the → sound speed, κ the → epicyclic frequency, G the → gravitational constant, and Σ the → surface density. The disk is linearly stable for Q > 1 and linearly unstable for Q < 1.After Alar Toomre (1936-), an American astrophysicist of Estonian origin, professor of mathematics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; → parameter. two-color diagram   نمودار ِ دو رنگ   nemudâr-e do rangFr.: diagramme deux couleurs   A graph on which two color indices such as B-V and U-B are plotted, one along each axis, for a sample of stars or other objects, such as stars.→ two; → color; → diagram. Venn diagram   نمودار ِ وِن   nemudâr-e Venn (#)Fr.: diagramme de Venn   A schematic diagram using circles to represent sets and the relationships between them. Each circle represents one set. Two or more may be overlapped. The areas of overlap indicate subsets.Named after John Venn (1834-1923), a British logician and philosopher, who introduced the diagram; → diagram. virial parameter   پارامون ِ ویریال   pârâmun-e viriyâlFr.: paramètre du viriel   A dimensionless parameter that measures the ratio of thermal plus kinetic energies to gravitational energy of a physical system, such as a molecular cloud. The virial parameter is expressed as: αvir = 5σ2R / GM, where R and M are the radius and mass of the cloud respectively, σ is the one-dimensional → velocity dispersion inside the cloud, and G the → gravitational constant. It indicates whether a cloud could be bound or not. For molecular clouds that are confined by their surface pressure and for which self-gravity is unimportant, αvir is much larger than unity, whereas αvir is ~ 1 when the gravitational energy of a clump becomes comparable to its kinetic energy. See, e.g., Bertoldi & McKee, 1992 (ApJ 395, 140). See also → virial theorem.→ virial; → parameter.

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