An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 65 Search : logy
-šenâsi (#)

Fr.: -logie   

A combining form used in the names of sciences or bodies of knowledge, such as → biology, → geology, → cosmology. See also → -ics.

M.E. -logie, from O.Fr. -logie, from L. -logia, from Gk. -logia, from legein "to speak, tell over; to choose, gather," logos "word, speech, thought, account."

-Šenâsi, from šenâs, present stem of šenâsidan, šenâxtan "to know, discern, distinguish, be acquainted with;" Mid.Pers. šnâxtan, šnâs- "to know, recognize," dânistan "to know;" O.Pers./Av. xšnā- "to know, learn, come to know, recognize;" cf. Skt. jñā- "to recognize, know," jānāti "he knows;" Gk. gignoskein "to know, think, judge;" L. gnoscere, noscere "to come to know" (Fr. connaître; Sp. conocer); P.Gmc. *knoeanan; O.E. cnawan; E. know; Rus. znat "to know;" PIE base *gno- "to know."

  جوشناسی، جوشناخت   
javvšenâsi, javvšenâxt

Fr.: aérologie   

A subdivision of meteorology concerned with the total vertical extent of the atmosphere as opposed to the study of the atmosphere near Earth's surface.

Aerology from Gk. aero- "air" + Gk. logia "study of," from legein "to speak".

Javvšenâsi, from Ar. javv "air, atmosphere" + šenâsi "knowledge, knowing," from šenâxtan "to know," from Av./O.Pers. xšnâ "to learn, come to know, know," compare with Skt. jna "to know," Gk. gignoskein "to know, think, judge," L. gnoscere, noscere "to come to know," PIE *gno- "to know."

ânâguyi (#)

Fr.: analogie   

1) A similarity or comparability between two things.
2) Math.: A general similarity between two problems or methods. Analogy is used to infer new theorems from existing ones. Hypotheses based on analogy must still be proved.
3) Logic: A form of reasoning which asserts that if two or more entities are similar in one or more respects, then they would be similar in other respects.
4) Biology: An analogous relationship.
5) Linguistics: The process by which a word or form is either created or changed according to existing patterns in the language.

M.E., from O.Fr. analogie or directly from L. analogia, from Gk. analogia "proportion," from → ana- "upon, according to" + logos "ratio; word, speech, reckoning," → -logy.


Fr.: aréologie   

The study of the origin, history, and structure of Mars; the geology of Mars.

Areology, from Gk. Ares "Mars" + → -logy.

Bahrâm-šenâsi, from Bahrâm "Mars" + -šenâsi-logy.


Fr.: astérosismologie   

The study of the → internal structure of stars through the interpretation of their pulsation periods (→ stellar pulsation). The radial pulsations are the result of → sound waves resonating in the stars interior. Different → pulsation modes penetrate to different depths inside a star. If a large number of pulsation modes occurs, then the stellar interior, which is not directly observable, can be probed from oscillation studies because the modes penetrate to various depths inside the star. Using a complex mathematical analysis, very detailed investigations of the structure of the star's interior can be carried out. Applied to the Sun, it is called → helioseismology.

From → astero- "star," from aster-, → astro-, + → seismology.

Axtarlarzešenâsi, from axtar "star," → astro-, + larzešenâsi, → seismology.

  اخترباستان‌شناسی، باستان‌اخترشناسی   
axtarbâstânšenâsi(#) , bâstânaxtaršenâsi (#)

Fr.: astroarchéologie   

Same as → archaeoastronomy, megalithic astronomy.

axtarzistšenâsi (#)

Fr.: astrobiologie   

The study of life throughout the Universe, also known as exobiology.

Astrobiology, from Gk. → astro- "star" + bio "life" + -logy "science, study."

Axtarzistšenâsi, from axtar, → star, → astro- + zistšenâsi, → biology.

axtarzaminšenâsi (#)

Fr.: astrogéologie   

A science concerned with the geology of solid bodies in the Solar system, such as planets, satellites, asteroids, and meteorites.

Astrogeology, from Gk. → astro- "star" + → geology.

Axtarzaminšenâsi, from axtar, → star, → + zaminšenâsi, → geology.

axtarguyi (#)

Fr.: astrologie   

A → pseudoscience based on the belief that the apparent positions and → aspects of a small number of celestial bodies influence the course of human life and terrestrial events. Although the Sun and Moon have a gravitational influence on Earth, there is no known force that can cause celestial bodies to affect human affairs in the way claimed by → astrologers. Generally speaking, astrology is baseless and incoherent. In the astrological belief the influence of celestial bodies does not depend upon their distance from Earth, but on their positions and apparent angular separations. Outer planets can have a similar degree of influence as the inner planets. As a consequence, the billions of planets in our Galaxy and in billions of other galaxies should also influence us, and logically the effect of those planets must overwhelm any influence of the planets we see. Nevertheless astrologers do not care, and this fact makes astrological deductions absurd even in their scheme. Historically, the planets → Uranus, → Neptune, and → Pluto were not used in astrological predictions. They were added from the 18th century onward, after their discovery. Now that Pluto is disqualified as a planet, will astrologers remove it from their theories? If the answer is negative, they must logically include the numerous other similar → dwarf planets (such as → Charon, → Quaoar, → Sedna) residing in the → Kuiper belt. In brief, astrology is a superstition chiefly based on ignorance and man's need for mental contentment.

astro-; → -logy.

Axtarguyi, literally "star-telling," from axtar "star," → astro- + guyi verbal noun from goftan "to tell, speak, talk;" Mid.Pers. guftan "to say, tell, utter;" O.Pers. gaub- "to say."

zistženâsi (#)

Fr.: biologie   

The study of living organisms and their interactions with the non living world.

Biology, from → bio- + → -logy.

  گاه‌شناسی، گاه‌راییک   
gâhšenâsi, gâhrâyik

Fr.: chronologie   

The science of dating, of ordering time, of arranging in periods, and of determining temporal distances between past events.

Chronology, from Gk. khronos "time" + → -logy.

Gâhšenâsi, from gâh "time" + -šenâsi, → -logy. Gâhrâik, from gâh + rây, ârâ "order, arrangement" stem of ârâstan "to arrange, to set in order, adorn" (Mid.Pers. ârây-, ârâstan "to arrange, adorn," O.Pers. râs- "to be right, straight, true," râsta- "straight, true" (Mod.Pers. râst "straight, true"), râd- "to prepare," Av. râz- "to direct, put in line, set," Av. razan- "order," Gk. oregein "to stretch out," L. regere "to lead straight, guide, rule," p.p. rectus "right, straight," Skt. rji- "to make straight or right, arrange, decorate," PIE base *reg- "move in a straight line") + -ik, → -ics.


Fr.: climatologie   

The scientific study of climates. More specifically, the analysis of weather condition trends over a relatively long period of time (past, present or future). Climatology is distinct from meteorology, which is associated with short-term weather system studies.

climate; → -logy.

conformal cyclic cosmology (CCC)
  کیهانشناسی ِ چرخه‌ای ِ همدیس   
keyhânšenâsi-ye carxe-yi-ye hamdis

Fr.: cosmologie cyclique conforme   

A cosmological model developped by Roger Penrose and colleagues according which the Universe undergoes repeated cycles of expansion. Each cycle, referred to an aeon, starts from its own "→ big bang" and finally comes to a stage of accelerated expansion which continues indefinitely. There is no stage of contraction (to a "→ big crunch") in this model. Instead, each aeon of the universe, in a sense "forgets" how big it is, both at its big bang and in its very remote future where it becomes physically identical with the big bang of the next aeon, despite there being an infinite scale change involved, on passing from one aeon to the next. This model considers a conformal structure rather than a metric structure. Conformal structure may be viewed as family of metrics that are equivalent to one another via a scale change, which may vary from place to place. Thus, in conformal space-time geometry, there is not a particular metric gab, but an equivalence class of metrics where the metrics ğab and gab are considered to be equivalent if there is a smooth positive scalar field Ω for which ğab = Ω gab (R. Penrose, 2012, The Basic Ideas of Conformal Cyclic Cosmology).

conformal; → cyclic; → cosmology.

keyhânšenâsi (#)

Fr.: cosmologie   

The science of the origin, structure, and evolution of the Universe including the origin of galaxies, the chemical elements, and matter.

Cosmology, from → cosmo- + → -logy.

Keyhânšenâsi, from keyhân, → cosmos, + šenâsi, → -logy.

dâršenâsi (#)

Fr.: dendrologie   

The branch of → botany dealing with trees and shrubs. Dendrology studies the distinguishing characteristics of tree species for the purpose of identification and classification into orders and other natural groups.

From dendro- a combining form meaning "tree," from Gk. dendron "tree," related to Pers. dâr, → tree, + → -logy.

bumšenâsi (#)

Fr.: écologie   

1) The scientific discipline that is concerned with the relationships between living organisms and their past, present, and future environments.
2) The study of the damaging effects of modern civilisation on the environment, with the aim of prevention or reversal through conservation.

eco- + → -logy.

šenaxtšenâsi (#)

Fr.: épistémologie   

A branch of philosophy that investigates the possibility, origins, nature, methods, and limits of human knowledge.

From Gk. episteme "knowledge," from Ionic Gk. epistasthai "to understand," literally "overstand," from → epi- "over, near" + histasthai "to stand;" cognate with Pers. istâdan "to stand," → standard; PIE base *sta- "to stand."

From šenaxt, → knowledge, + -šenâsi, → -logy.


Fr.: ethnologie   

The study of specific cultures (ethnic groups) in their different aspects (anthropological, social, cultural, etc.) to establish similarities and disparities between them.

ethno-; → logy.

riše-šenâsi (#)

Fr.: étymologie   

The study of the origins and history of the form and meaning of → words.

M.E., from L. etymologia, from Gk. etymologia, from etymon "true sense" (neuter of etymos) + logos, → -logy.

Riše-šenâsi, from rišé "root" (dialectal Tabari rexa; Kurd. regez, riše), from Mid.Pers. rêšak "root," maybe ultimately related to PIE *u(e)rad-, although the Skt. offshoot is absent (Gk. rhiza "root;" L. radix, radius "staff;" O.H.G. wurz "plant, herb;" Ger. Wurz; O.E. rot; E. root) + -šenâsi, → -logy.

borun zistšenâsi

Fr.: exobiologie   

The study of life beyond the Earth's atmosphere, as on other planets; also → astrobiology.

exo-; → biology.

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