An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



<< < -ab ab- abo abs abs acc acc ack act acu add adi adv aff agg Ald Alf ali all alp alt Ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app app arc are Ari art asp ast ast ast Ata atm ato att aut ave axi > >>

Number of Results: 972
alternative energy
  کاروژ ِ دگرینه   
kâruž-e degarine-ye

Fr.: énergie alternative   

Energy from a source other than the conventional fossil fuel sources.

alternative; → energy.

alternative hypothesis
  انگاره‌ی ِ دگرینه   
engâre-ye degarine

Fr.: hypothèse alternative   

Statistics: In → significance testing, any hypothesis which differs from the one being tested. A hypothesis alternative to the → null hypothesis is denoted by H1.

alternative; → hypothesis.


Fr.: alternativement   

In place of, or as an alternative to.

Adverb from → alternative.


Fr.: alternateur   

A machine or device that produces alternating current.

Alternator, noun from → alternate + → -or.

  فرازسنج، فرازیاب   
farâzsanj (#), farâzyâb (#)

Fr.: altimètre   

An instrument which determines the altitude of an object with respect to a fixed level, such as sea level.

L. altus "high" + → -meter.

Farâzsanj, from farâz "above, over, aloft" + -sanj, → -meter; farâzyâb, from farâz + yâb "finder," from yâbidan "to find, discover, obtain."

  فرازسنجی، فرازیابی   
farâzsanji (#), farâzyâbi (#)

Fr.: altimétrie   

The measurement of heights in the atmosphere (altitude) by an → altimeter.

altimeter; → -metry.

farâzâ (#)

Fr.: altitude   

1) The height above sea level.
2) The angle between an object's position on the celestial sphere and the horizon.
3) Of a triangle, the perpendicular from the base to the opposite vertex.

Altitude, from L. altitudo, from altus "high".

Farâzâ, from farâz "above, up, upon," → height, + noun making suffix -a.

altitude circle
  پرهون ِ فرازا   
parhun-e farâzâ

Fr.: cercle d'égale altitude   

A circle on the celestial sphere that has equal altitude over the Earth's surface and lies parallel to the horizon. Also called almucantar, circle of altitude, parallel of altitude.

altitude; → circle.

altitude-azimuth mounting
  برنشاند ِ فرازا-سوگان   
barnešând-e farâzâ-sugân

Fr.: monture altitude-azimutale   

Same as → altazimuth mounting.

altitude; → azimuth; → mounting.

âluminiom (#)

Fr.: aluminium   

A silver-white, malleable and ductile metal, symbol Al. → Atomic number 13; → atomic weight 26.98154; → melting point 660.37°C; → boiling point 2,467°C; → specific gravity 2.6989 at 20°C. Its electric → conductivity is comparable with that of copper, so that being much lighter it is used extensively for transmission lines. The metal and its → alloys have strength with lightness. The → reflectivity of aluminium is high and it is therefore used broadly for coating → mirrors (→ aluminization). Aluminium occurs widely in clays; it is extracted mainly from bauxite. It has several → radioactive isotopes with half-lives from 2.3 sec (23Al) to 6.56 min (29Al). When aluminium is bombarded with → alpha particles, its atoms first turn into radioactive → phosphorus, then into → silicon. This occurs naturally in → massive stars.

The name of the chemical element, was coined by Sir Humphry Davy (1778-1829), from L. alumen "alum; bitter salt," akin to Gk. aludoimos "bitter" and Eng. ale. Davy originally called it alumium (1808), then modified this to aluminum, which remains the U.S. word, but British editors in 1812 further amended it to aluminium. In 1825, the Danish physicist Hans Christian Oersted (1777-1851) isolated impure aluminium. The pure metal was first isolated by the German chemist Friedrich Wöhler (1800-1882) in 1827.

  آلومینیوم اندودن   
âluminiom andudan (#)

Fr.: aluminiser   

To coat a telescope → mirror with a very thin but perfectly uniform layer of → aluminium to make it reflective.

Aluminize, v. from alumin(um), → aluminium, + → -ize.

Âluminiom andudan, from âluminiom + andudan "to incrustate, plaster, cover over."

aluminizing, aluminization
  آلومینیوم اندود   
âluminiom andud (#)

Fr.: aluminisation   

The process by which the coating of aluminium is deposited on a telescope mirror.

Verbal noun of → aluminize.

AM CVn star
  ستاره‌ی ِ AM سگان ِ تازی   
setâre-ye AM Sagân-e Tâzi

Fr.: étoile AM CVn   

A → binary system that has very short orbital period (less than one hour) and helium dominated spectrum. The prototype, AM Canum Venaticorum, with a period of 17 minutes, was discovered in 1967. AM CVn stars are → semidetached binary systems in which → accretion is going on. The → donor star is hydrogen deficient and the → accretor is usually a → white dwarf. To fit within their → Roche lobes, the donor stars must be dense, suggesting they may be → degenerate too. It is at present thought that AM CVn stars represent three possible evolutionary phases in 1) → double white dwarf systems, 2) white dwarf and → helium star binaries, and 3) → cataclysmic variables with evolved donors. For a review see G. Nelemans 2005, astro-ph/0409676.

AM, letters of alphabet used in variable star designations; CVn, abbreviation of → Canes Venatici; → star.

AM Herculis
   AM هراکلس   
AM Herâkles

Fr.: AM Herculis   

A → red dwarf variable star located in the constellation → Hercules. AM Herculis usually remains in its "high" state (V ~ 13 mag), but from time to time it drops into a "low" state (V> 15 mag) that may last weeks or months. Originally classified as an irregular variable and associated with the X-ray source 3U 1809+50, AM Her was discovered in 1976 to be a short-period → binary system (3.1 hour orbital period) related to the → cataclysmic variables. It is in fact an → interacting binary in which a red dwarf (M4 V) loses mass to a → white dwarf primary star. The white dwarf has a very strong magnetic field (B ~ 2 × 108 G) and rotates synchronously with the orbit. The magnetic field constrains the → mass loss from the secondary star to flow along a stream directly onto the white dwarf rather than into an → accretion disk as in the nonmagnetic cataclysmic variables. The optical spectrum shows strong emission lines of H, He I, and He II, along with weaker lines of other ions such as N III, C III, C II, and Ca II, all showing large velocity variations. → TiO bands from the M4 V secondary star are detected when the system is in its "low" state. AM Her is the class prototype of the → polars (see, e.g., Hutchings et al. 2002, AJ 123, 2841).

AM, letters of alphabet used in variable star designations; → Hercules.

Am star
  ستاره‌ی ِ Am   
setâre-ye Am

Fr.: étoile Am   

A chemically peculiar A- or early F-type star showing an overabundance of → heavy elements and an underabundance of calcium and scandium. An Am star cannot receive a unique spectral type, as different methods (using the metallic lines, the hydrogen Balmer lines, and the calcium Ca II K-lines) yield three different spectral types. Contrarily to Ap stars, Am stars do not have significant external magnetic fields. Their rotational velocities are about 100-120 km s-1 smaller than those of → Ap stars.

A for the spectral type, m for → metal; → star.

Amalthea [Jupiter V]
Âmâlteâ (#)

Fr.: Amalthée   

The third of Jupiter's known satellites orbiting at about 181,300 km from Jupiter with a period of about 12h. A mean diameter of 189 km makes it the fifth largest satellite of Jupiter. Amalthea was discovered by E. Barnard in 1892.

Amalthea, in Gk. mythology, the goat that suckled Zeus after his mother had him sent to Crete so his father would not eat him.

anbâštan (#)

Fr.: amasser   

1) To collect into a mass or pile; → accumulate.
2) To gather for oneself; collect as one's own (

M.E., from O.Fr. amasser, from à "to," → ad-, + masser "to gather in mass," → mass.

Anbâštan, anbârdan "to fill, to replete," from Mid.Pers. hambāridan "to fill;" from Proto-Iranian *ham-par-, from prefix ham-, → com-, + par- "to fill;" cf. Av. par- "to fill," parav-, pauru-, pouru- "full, much, many;" O.Pers. paru- "much, many;" Mid.Pers. purr "full;" Mod.Pers. por "full, much, very;" PIE base *pelu- "full," from *pel- "to be full;" cf. Skt. puru- "much, abundant;" Gk. polus "many," plethos "great number, multitude;" O.E. full.

dustkâr (#)

Fr.: amateur   

One who engages in an activity (study, science, or sport) as a pastime rather than as a profession. → amateur astronomer, → amateur astronomy.

From Fr. amateur "lover of, one who has a taste for (something)," from L. amator "lover," from amare "to love."

Dustkâr, a variant of dustâr, dustdâr "he who likes, lover, supporter," from dust "friend, lover" + kâr "occupation, → work."

amateur astronomer
  اخترشناس ِ دوستکار   
axtaršenâs-e dustkâr (#)

Fr.: astronome amateur   

A person who engages in astronomy as a pastime rather than as a profession. → amateur astronomy. See also → professional astronomer.

amateur; → astronomer.

amateur astronomy
  اخترشناسی ِ دوستکار   
axtaršenâsi-ye dustkâr (#)

Fr.: astronomie amateur   

The astronomical activities carried out by → amateur astronomers.

amateur; → astronomy.

<< < -ab ab- abo abs abs acc acc ack act acu add adi adv aff agg Ald Alf ali all alp alt Ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app app arc are Ari art asp ast ast ast Ata atm ato att aut ave axi > >>