An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



<< < -ab ab- abo abs abs acc acc ack act acu add adi adv aff agg Ald Alf ali all alp alt Ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app app arc are Ari art asp ast ast ast Ata atm ato att aut ave axi > >>

Number of Results: 972
Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA)
  آرست ِ بزرگ ِ میلیمتری ِ آتاکاما   
ârast-e bozorg-e milimetri-ye âtâkâmâ (ALMA)

Fr.: Grand réseau millimétrique Atacama   

One of the largest ground-based astronomy projects and a major new facility for world astronomy located on the plain of the → Chajnantor Chilean Andes, San Pedro de Atacama, some 5000 m above sea level. ALMA will initially comprise 66 high precision antennas, with the option to expand in the future. There will be an array of fifty 12 m antennas, acting together as an → interferometer to capture → millimeter and → submillimeter wavelengths of 0.3 to 9.6 mm. It will have reconfigurable baselines ranging from 15 m to 18 km. A compact array of 7 m antenna and few 12 m diameter antennas (ACA) will be used to measure the diffuse emission. Resolutions as fine as 0''.005 will be achieved at the highest frequencies. Construction of ALMA started in 2003 and will be completed in 2012. The ALMA project is an international collaboration between Europe, Japan, and North America in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. ALMA is funded in Europe by the → European Southern Observatory (ESO). The first 12 m diameter antenna, built by Mitsubishi Electric Corporation for the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, was handed over to ESO in 2008. It will shortly be joined by North American and European antennas. ALMA will allow astronomers to study the cool Universe, i.e. the molecular gas and tiny dust grains from which stars, planetary systems, galaxies, and even life are formed.

Atacama the name of a desert, west of the Andes mountains in Chile, covering a 1,000 km strip of land on the Pacific coast of South America; → large; → millimeter; → submillimeter; → array.

Aten asteroid
  سیارک ِ آتن   
sayyârak-e Aten

Fr.: astéroïde Aten   

A member of a class of → near-Earth asteroids with → perihelion distances between 0.983 and 1.0 → astronomical units. It is estimated that 6% of the total number of NEAs are Atens.

Aten; → asteroid.

  یزدان-ناباوری، خدا-ناباوری، ا-یزدان-باوری   
yazdân-nâbâvari, xodâ-nâbâvari, a-yazdân-bâvari

Fr.: athée   

1) The doctrine or belief that there is no → God.
2) Disbelief in the existence of a supreme being or beings.

a-; → theism.

Atlasi (#)

Fr.: atlantique   

Of or pertaining to the Atlantic Ocean.

M.E., from L. Atlanticum (mare) "the Atlantic (ocean)," from Gk. Atlantikos "of Atlas," adj. of → Atlas, in reference to Mount Atlas in NW Africa. So called because it lay beyond that mountain.

1) Atlas (#); 2) atlas (#); 3) Atlas

Fr.: Atlas   

1) The second of → Saturn's known satellites. It has a diameter of about 30 km and orbits Saturn between the outer edge of the A ring and the F ring at a mean distance of about 137,600 km. It was discovered by Richard Terrile in 1980 from Voyager 1 photos. Also known as Saturn XV.
2) A bound collection of maps often including illustrations and informative texts.
3) A blue star of visual magnitude V = 3.63, B - V = -0.09, and spectral type B8 III in the → Pleiades. Other designations: 27 Tauri, HR 1178, HD 23850. It is in fact a → triple system.

In Gk. mythology, Atlas a son of the Titan → Iapetus and the nymph Clymene. After the Titans revolted and lost a war against Zeus, Atlas was condemned by Zeus to stand forever holding up the heavens. He was identified with the Atlas Mountains in NW Africa.

  اتمو-، هوا-   
atmo-, havâ-

Fr.: atmo-   

A combining form meaning "air, vapor," used in the formation of compound terms. air or vapour

From Gk. atmos "vapor."

Atmo-, loan from Gk., as above.
Havâ-, → air.

  اتمودوست، هوادوست   
atmodust, havâdust

Fr.: atmophile   

atmophile element.

atmo-; → phile.

atmophile element
  بن‌پار ِ اتمودوست، ~ هوادوست، ~ گازدوست   
bonpâr-e atmodust, ~ havâdust, ~ goazdust

Fr.: élément atmophile   

In the → Goldschmidt classification, a → chemical element that is extremely → volatile, i.e., forms a gas or liquid at the surface of the Earth. The atmophile elements are usually concentrated in the terrestrial → atmosphere and → hydrosphere. They are → hydrogen (H), → carbon (C), → nitrogen (N), and → noble gas/qot>es, namely → helium (He), → neion (Ne), → argon (Ar), → krypton (Kr), → xenon (Xe), and → radon (Rn) (Pinti D.L., 2017, Atmophile Elements. In: White W. (eds) Encyclopedia of Geochemistry, Springer).

atmophile; → element.

  جو، هواسپهر   
javv (#), havâsepehr

Fr.: atmosphère   

1) The gaseous envelope surrounding a star, planet, or moon. Several solar system planets retain considerable atmospheres, due to their strong gravitational force. The gas motions in the planetary atmosphere, as a response to the heating, coupled with the rotation forces, generate the meteorological systems. The planetary satellites → Titan and → Triton also have atmospheres (M.S.: SDE).
2) A unit of pressure, called standard atmosphere, which is the pressure of air balanced by a column of mercury 76 cm high with a density of the mercury of 13.595 g/cm3 at normal acceleration of gravity. Such a column applies a pressure equal to its weight to each square cm, or 1.01325 x 106 dynes/cm2 = 1.01325 x 105 N/m2. Since this pressure is equal to 1.03323 kilograms of force per square centimeter, instead of it use is often made of the technical atmosphere (at), exactly equal to 1 kgf/cm2.

New L. atmosphaera, from Gk. atmos "vapor" + spharia "sphere."

Havâsepehr, from Mod.Pers. havâ, → air, + sepehr, → sphere. Javv "air, atmosphere," from Ar. jauw.

  جوی، هواسپهری   
javvi, havâsepehri (#)

Fr.: atmosphérique   

Pertaining to or existing in the atmosphere of an astronomical object such as a planet, moon, or star.

atmosphere; → -ic.

atmospheric absorption
  درشم ِ جوی   
daršam-e javvi

Fr.: absorption atmosphérique   

The absorption of → electromagnetic radiation in the → atmosphere mainly by → water vapor, → carbon dioxide, and oxygen. The atmosphere introduces two more limiting factors in → remote sensing: → atmospheric scattering and → atmospheric turbulence.

atmospheric; → absorption.

atmospheric circulation
  پرهونش ِ هواسپهری   
parhuneš-e havâsepehri

Fr.: circulation atmosphérique   

The large-scale movements of air around areas of high and low pressure whereby heat is distributed on the surface of the Earth. Atmospheric motion is driven by uneven heating of the planet. The atmosphere (and ocean) → transfers the excess heat from → tropics to → poles. The flow is determined by balance between → pressure gradients and the → Coriolis effect.

atmospheric; → circulation.

atmospheric dispersion
  پاشش ِ جوی   
pâšeš-e javvi

Fr.: dispersion atmosphérique   

The splitting of starlight into a spectrum in the atmosphere because the atmosphere acts as a refracting prism. This phenomenon brings about a practical problem for spectroscopic observations using a slit. → differential refraction; → atmospheric refraction.

atmospheric; → dispersion.

atmospheric emission
  گسیل ِ جوی   
gosil-e javvi

Fr.: émission atmosphérique   

The emission of electromagnetic radiation from the atmosphere due to thermal and → non-thermal processes. → Thermal emission comes mainly from → water vapor. Non-thermal processes result in emission lines oxygen (optical) and OH (near-IR). Atmospheric emission is a very significant source of noise in astronomical observations. See also → airglow, → aurora.

atmospheric; → emission.

atmospheric escape
  گریز ِ جوی   
goriz-e javvi

Fr.: échappement atmosphérique   

A process by which a planet loses its atmospheric gases to space. There are three main types: 1) → thermal escape, 2) → suprathermal escape (or → nonthermal escape), and 3) → impact erosion. According to models, the two mechanisms that can most efficiently cause substantial atmospheric loss are hydrodynamic escape and impact erosion (see, e.g., Catling, D. C. and Kasting, J. F., 2017, Escape of Atmospheres to Space, pp. 129-167. Cambridge University Press).

atmospheric; → escape.

atmospheric extinction
  خاموشی ِ جوی   
xâmuši-ye javvi

Fr.: extinction atmosphérique   

The decrease in the intensity of light from a celestial body due to absorption and scattering by Earth's atmosphere. It increases from the zenith to the horizon and affects short wavelengths more than long wavelengths, so that objects near the horizon appear redder than they do at the zenith.

atmospheric; → extinction.

atmospheric muon
  موءون ِ جوی، ~ هواسپهری   
muon-e javvi, ~ havâsepehri

Fr.: muon atmosphérique   

A → subatomic particle produced when → primary cosmic rays, impinge on the Earth's atmosphere producing a particle cascade, in which secondary particles decay into → muons. In the energy range up to 100 → GeV atmospheric muons come mostly from the decay of secondary → pions: π±→ μ± + anti-νμ. At higher energies, the → kaon contribution to the muon flux become significant, reaching the asymptotic value of 27% at about 10 TeV: K±→ μ± + anti-νμ.

atmospheric; → muon.

atmospheric neutrino
  نوترینو‌ی ِ جوی   
notrino-ye javvi

Fr.: neutrino atmosphérique   

A neutrino produced in the collision of → cosmic rays (typically → protons) with nuclei in the → upper atmosphere. This creates a shower of → hadrons, mostly → pions. The pions decay to a → muon and a muon neutrino. The muons decay to an → electron, another muon neutrino, and an electron neutrino.

atmospheric; → neutrino.

atmospheric noise
  نوفه‌ی ِ جوی   
nufe-ye javvi

Fr.: bruit atmosphérique   

Noise in radio wavelengths caused by natural atmospheric processes, mainly lightening discharges in thunderstorms. They can affect radio observations.

atmospheric; → noise.

atmospheric refraction
  شکست ِ جوی   
šekast-e javvi

Fr.: réfraction atmosphérique   

The shift in apparent direction of a celestial object caused by the bending of light while passing through the Earth's atmosphere. Since the density of the atmosphere decreases with altitude, the starlight will bend more as it continues down through the atmosphere. As a result, a star will appear higher in the sky than its true direction.

atmospheric; → refraction.

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