An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 696

Fr.: excrétion   

A process in which an astronomical body loses mass mainly in the direction of its → equatorial regions, as opposed to → accretion.

From L. → ex- + crescere "to grow," → accretion.

excretion disk
  گرده‌ی ِ اُسبال   
gerde-ye osbâl

Fr.: disque d'excrétion   

An expanding → equatorial → disk or → torus of material ejected by a star. The phenomenon may result from a stellar → merger or an increase in its rate of → rotation or → stellar winds. Contrasted with → accretion disk.

excretion; → disk.


Fr.: excursion   

1) A short trip or outing to some place, usually for a special purpose and with the intention of a prompt return.
2) Physics: The displacement of a body or a point from a mean position or neutral value, as in an oscillation ( → geomagnetic excursion.

From L. excursion- "a running forth, expedition," figuratively "an outset, opening," from excurrere "to run out," from → ex- "out" + currere "to run," → current.

Zocâr, literally "wander out, " from zo- "out," → ex-, + câr "to come and go, wander," related to car-, caridan "to psature, graze;" (Karingân) cârumé "excursion, walking around," (Sorxé) câqâle, (Sangesar, Semnân) ceqala "excursion;" Av. car- "to come and go, wander;" cf. Skt. car- "to move, walk, go;" Gk. pelomai "I move;" L. colere "to till, cultivate;" PIE root *kwelH- "to move, turn, wander."


Fr.: exécutable   

1) Computers: Describing a computer program that is able to be run. → executable program.
2) Computer: A file containing a program that will run when it is opened. → executable file.

execute; → -able.

executable file
  پرونده‌ی ِ زکاردنی   
parvande-ye zokârdani

Fr.: fichier exécutable   

A type of binary file designed to be directly executed by a computer system. → executable program.

executable; → file.

executable program
  برنامه‌ی ِ زکاردنی   
barnâme-ye zokârdani

Fr.: programme exécutable   

A program that can run on a → computer. It uses an → executable file.

executable; → program.


Fr.: exécuter   

1) To carry out; accomplish.
2) To create (a work of art, for example) or carry out in accordance with a prescribed design.
3) Computers: To run a program or an instruction.

M.E. executen, from O.Fr. executer, from M.L. executare, from L. execut-/exsecut-, p.p. stem of exequi/exsequi "to follow out, carry out," from → ex- "out" + sequi "to follow, come after," from PIE root *sekw- "to follow," → sequence; cf. Av. hac- "to follow," Gk. hepesthai "to follow," Skt. sacate "accompanies, follows"

Zokârdan, from prefix zo-, variants os-, so-, âz-, → ex-, + kâr variant of kar-, kardan "to do, to make," → -ize.


Fr.: exécution   

The act of executing something; the state of being executed.

Verbal noun of → execute; → -tion.

  ۱) زکارشی؛ ۲) زکارگر   
1) zokâreši; 2) zokârgar

Fr.: exécutif   

1a) Of, pertaining to, or suited for carrying out plans, duties, etc.
1b) Pertaining to or charged with the execution of laws and policies or the administration of public affairs.
2a) A person or group of persons having administrative or supervisory authority in an organization.
2b) The person or persons in whom the supreme executive power of a government is vested (

execute; → -ive.


Fr.: exécuteur   

A person who executes, carries out, or performs some duty, job, assignment, artistic work, etc. (

execute; → -or.


Fr.: exeligmos   

A period of three → Saros cycles, that is 54 years and 34 days (19,755.96 days) that can be used to predict successive → eclipses with similar properties and location. As the Saros cycle is a period of about 6.585 1/3 days, the 1/3 day means that after 223 → lunar months all eclipses are shifted by about 8 hours (or by about 120° in longitude). Exeligmos contains a whole number of → synodic months (669), it also contains a whole number of → anomalistic months (717), and → draconistic months (726). So, after one exeligmos, the Moon will again be near the same node of its orbit. Thus we have a very good chance of finding an eclipse. Moreover, since an exeligmos also contains a whole number of days, the eclipse will even occur at about the same time of day as before. But because the Moon moves 32° in mean longitude, over and above complete cycles, during an exeligmos, the second eclipse will occur approximately one zodiac sign farther east than did the first one (James Evans & J. Lennart Berggren, Geminos's Introduction to the Phenomena, A Translation and Study of Hellenistic Survey of Astronomy, 2006, Princeton Univ. Press).

Exeligmos, Gk. "turn of the wheel."

Carxgard "turn of the wheel," from carx, → wheel, + gard "turn," → revolve.

  ۱) آورژش؛ ۲) آورژیدن   
1) âvaržeš 1) âvaržidan

Fr.: 1) exercise; 2) exercer   

1a) Something done or performed as a means of practice or training.
1b) A putting into action, use, operation, or effect.
2a) To put (faculties, rights, etc.) into action, practice, or use.
2b) To put through exercises, or forms of practice or exertion, designed to train, develop, condition, or the like (

M.E., from M.Fr. exercice, from L. exercitium "training, exercise" (of soldiers, horsemen, etc.); from → ex- "off" + arcere "keep away, prevent, enclose."

Âvaržeš, verbal noun from Âvaržidan, from prefix â- + varž, "work," variant of varz, → practice, + infinitive suffix -idan.


Fr.: exercer   

To apply or put forth, as strength.

From L. ex(s)ertus, p.p. of exserere "to thrust out, put forth," from → ex- "out," + serere "to bind together."

Balizidan, from Kurd (Kurm.) bil "work," bilîn "to work," variant of varz, → practice, + infinitive suffix -idan.


Fr.: effort; exercice   

1) Vigorous action; physical or mental effort.
2) The application or exercise of force, power, or faculties.

exert; → -tion.


Fr.: épuiser   

1) To drain of strength or energy, wear out, or fatigue greatly, as a person.
2) To use up or consume completely; expend the whole of.
3) To empty by drawing out the contents; to create a vacuum in.
4) To draw out all that is essential in (a subject, topic, etc.); treat or study thoroughly (

L. exhaustus, p.p. of exhaurire "to draw off, take away, use up, empty," from → ex- "off" + haurire "to draw up" (as water), from PIE *heusio- "to scoop."

Halanjidan, from Sorâni Kurd. halenjidan "to draw water," variants hanjidan, âxtan, âhixtan, âhiz-, hanjidan, lenj- "to draw, to pull" Mid.Pers. âhynj- "to draw up," other Pers. cognate sanjidan, farhang, nehang, etc.; ultimately from prefixed (*a-) Proto-Ir. *θanj- "to pull, draw;" Av. θanj- "to pull, to draw."


Fr.: épuisé   

1) Completely used up.
2) Very tired.

Past participle of → exhaust.


Fr.: épuisement   

1) The act or process of exhausting.
2) The state of being exhausted.
3) Extreme weakness or fatigue.
4) The total consumption of something (

exhaust; → -tion.

  ۱) اسپر، هلنجی؛ ۲) هلنجی   
1) ospor, halanji; 2) halanj

Fr.: 1) complet, à fond, exhaustif, munitieu   

1) Comprehensive in scope; thorough.
2) Tending to exhaust or drain, as resources or strength (

exhaust; → -ive.

Ospor, → perfect; halanj, halanji, → exhaust.

  هستومند بودن، هستن، بودن   
hastumand budan (#), hastan (#), budan (#)

Fr.: exister   

1) To have actual being or reality; to be.
2) To have life; to live.

M.E., from O.Fr. exister, ultimately from pr.p. of L. existere/exsistere "to stand forth, appear; to exist, be;" from → ex- + sistere "cause to stand," from PIE *sta-, cf. Pers. istâdan "to stand," → state.

Hastumand budan, from Mid.Pers. hastumand "existing, existent," from hast, ast 'is" (infinitive hastan, astan); O.Pers. astiy; Av. asti "is;" O.Pers./Av. root ah- "to be;" cf. Skt. as-; Gk. esti; L. est; PIE *es-, + euphonic -u-, + -mand possession suffix, → -ist, + budan "to be," to become;" Mid.Pers. butan "to be ,become," from O.Pers./Av. bav- "to be; become, take place," Av. buta- perf. ptcpl. pass., bavaiti "becomes," Skt. bhavati "becomes, happens," bhavah "becoming; condition, state," PIE *bheu- "to be, come into being, become;" cf. Gk. phu- "become," phuein "to bring forth, make grow," L. fui "I was" (perf. tense of esse), futurus "that is to be, future," Ger. present first and second person sing. bin, bist, E. to be, O.Ir. bi'u "I am," Lith. bu'ti "to be," Rus. byt' "to be."

  هستومندی، هستی   
hastumandi (#), hasti (#)

Fr.: existence   

Math.: The fact that at least one → solution exists for a given → problem.

exist; → -ence.

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