Fr.: température effective
A measure of the surface temperature of a star derived from the total emitted energy, assuming that the star is a → blackbody emitter (→ Stefan-Boltzmann law, → Planck's radiation law). See also → brightness temperature; → color temperature.
The degree to which goals are achieved and the extent to which posed problems are solved. Compare → efficiency.
Power or capacity to produce a desired effect; → effectiveness.
From L. efficacia "efficacy, efficiency," from efficax "powerful, effectual, efficient," from stem of efficere "accomplish," → effect.
Oskarmandi, → effectiveness.
1) The state or quality of being efficient; competence. Compare
L efficientia, from efficient-, → effect, + -ia "-y," an E. suffix of adjectives.
Kârâyi, from kârâ "efficient," from kâr, → work + â present stem of âmadan "to come," from Av. ay- "to go, to come," aēiti "goes," O.Pers. aitiy "goes," Skt. e- "to come near," eti "arrival," Gk. eimi "I go," L. eo "I go," Tokharian AB i-; PIE *ei- "to go, to walk."
1) An oval or round object laid by a female bird, reptile, fish,
or invertebrate, usually containing a developing embryo.
The eggs of birds are enclosed in a chalky shell, while those
of reptiles are in a leathery membrane.
M.E., from Old Norse egg, cognate with O.Saxon, M.Du., Du., O.H.G., Ger. Ei, probably from PIE *owyo-/*oyyo- "egg;" source of Pers. xâg, as below.
Toxm, → seed.
The reappearance of a celestial body after an eclipse, an occultation, or a transit; same as emersion. → ingress.
From L. egressus, from egredi "to go out," from → ex- "out" + -gredi, comb. form of gradi "to walk, go, step;" from PIE *ghredh- (cf. Lith. gridiju "to go, wander," O.C.S. gredo "to come").
Osgâm "going out," from os- "out," → ex-, + gâm "step, pace," Mid.Pers. gâm, O.Pers. gam- "to come; to go," Av. gam- "to come; to go," jamaiti "goes," Mod.Pers. âmadan "to come," Skt. gamati "goes," Gk. bainein "to go, walk, step," L. venire "to come," Tocharian A käm- "to come," O.H.G. queman "to come," E. come; PIE root *gwem- "to go, come."
Fr.: étoile EBH
Same as → extreme horizontal branch star.
Fr.: fonction propre
1) Math.: An → eigenvector for a linear
→ operator on a → vector space
whose vectors are → functions. Also known as
From Ger. Eigenfunktion, from eigen- "characteristic, particular, own" (from P.Gmc. *aigana- "possessed, owned," Du. eigen, O.E. agen "one's own") + → function.
Viž-karyâ, from viž, contraction of vižé "particular, charcteristic" + karyâ, → function. Vižé, from Mid.Pers. apēcak "pure, sacred," from *apa-vēcak "set apart," from prefix apa- + vēcak, from vēxtan (Mod.Pers. bixtan) "to detach, separate, sift, remove," Av. vaēk- "to select, sort out, sift," pr. vaēca-, Skt. vic-, vinakti "to sift, winnow, separate; to inquire."
Fr.: état propre
Fr.: valeur propre
1) Math.: The one of the → scalars λ such
that T(v) = λv, where T is a linear → operator
on a → vector space, and v is an
Fr.: vecteur propre
Math.: A nonzero vector v whose direction is not changed by a given linear transformation T; that is, T(v) = λ v for some scalar λ.
M.E. eighte, from O.E. eahta, æhta, related to O.Norse atta, Swed. åtta, Du. acht, O.H.G. Ahto, Ger. acht; Pars. hašt, as below, from PIE *okto(u) "eight."
Hašt, from Mid.Pers. hašt; Av. ašta; cognate with Skt. asta; Gk. okto; L. octo (from which It. otto, Sp. ocho, Fr. huit).
A unit of radiation energy sometimes used in the investigation of photochemical processes. The unit is defined as NAhν, where NA is → Avogadro's number and hν is the energy of a → quantum of the radiation. One einstein (or Einstein unit) is the energy per → mole of photons carried by a beam of monochromatic light.
Named for Albert Einstein (1879-1955).
Fr.: coefficient d'Einstein
A measure of the probability that a particular atomic transition leading to the formation of an atomic spectral line occurs. The coefficient of spontaneous emission is denoted by Aij, and the coefficient of stimulated emission by Bij, i representing the lower level and j is the upper level.
Named after Albert Einstein (1879-1955) who introduced the coefficients in 1916; → coefficient.
Fr.: croix d'Einstein
An image of a distant quasar (redshift 1.7) formed by a foreground spiral galaxy (redshift 0.039) through gravitational lensing. The image of the quasar is split into four point sources forming a cross at the center of the galaxy.
Einstein equivalence principle
parvaz-e hamug-arzi-ye Einstein
Fr.: principe d'équivalence d'Einstein
The → equivalence principle as stated by Einstein, on which is
based the theory of → general relativity. It comprises
the three following items:
Fr.: modèle d'Einstein
A model for the → specific heat of solids in which the specific heat is due to the vibrations of the atoms of the solids. The vibration energy is → quantized and the atoms have a single frequency, ν. Put forward in 1907 by Einstein, this model was the first application of → quantum theory to the solid state physics. The expression for the specific heat is given by: CV = 3Rx2ex/(ex -1)2, where R is the → gas constant, x = TE/T, TE = hν/k, h is → Planck's constant, and k is → Boltzmann's constant. TE is called the → Einstein temperature. This model could explain the temperature behavior of specific heat but not very satisfactorily at low temperatures. It has therefore been superseded by the → Debye model. See also → Dulong-Petit law.
Albert Einstein in 1907; → model.
Fr.: convention Einstein
A notation convention in → tensor analysis whereby whenever there is an expression with a repeated → index, the summation is done over that index from 1 to 3 (or from 1 to n, where n is the space dimension). For example, the dot product of vectors a and b is usually written as: a.b = Σ (i = 1 to 3) ai.bi. In the Einstein notation this is simply written as a.b = ai.bi. This notation makes operations much easier. Same as Einstein summation convention.
Fr.: rayon d'Einstein
In gravitational lens phenomenon, the critical distance from the → lensing object for which the light ray from the source is deflected to the observer, provided that the source, the lens, and the observer are exactly aligned. Consider a massive object (the lens) situated exactly on the line of sight from Earth to a background source. The light rays from the source passing the lens at different distances are bent toward the lens. Since the bending angle for a light ray increases with decreasing distance from the lens, there is a critical distance such that the ray will be deflected just enough to hit the Earth. This distance is called the Einstein radius. By rotational symmetry about the Earth-source axis, an observer on Earth with perfect resolution would see the source lensed into an annulus, called Einstein ring, centered on its position. The size of an Einstein ring is given by the Einstein radius: θE = (4GM/c2)0.5 (dLS/(dL.dS)0.5, where G is the → gravitational constant, M is the mass of the lens, c is the → speed of light, dL is the angular diameter distance to the lens, dS is the angular diameter distance to the source, and dLS is the angular diameter distance between the lens and the source. The equation can be simplified to: θE = (0''.9) (M/1011Msun)0.5 (D/Gpc)-0.5. Hence, for a dense cluster with mass M ~ 10 × 1015 Msun at a distance of 1 Gigaparsec (1 Gpc) this radius is about 100 arcsec. For a gravitational → microlensing event (with masses of order 1 Msun) at galactic distances (say D ~ 3 kpc), the typical Einstein radius would be of order milli-arcseconds.