An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 696
Eddington-Lemaître Universe
  گیتی ِ ادینگتون-لومتر   
giti-ye Eddington-Lemaître (#)

Fr.: Univers d'Eddington-Lemaître   

A theoretical model in which the → cosmological constant plays a crucial role by allowing an initial phase that is identical to the Einstein static Universe. After an arbitrarily long time, the Universe begins to expand. The difficulty with this model is that the initiation of galaxy formation may actually cause a collapse rather than initiate an → expansion of the Universe.

Eddington limit; Lemaître in honor of Georges-Henri Lemaître (1894-1966), a Belgian Roman Catholic priest, who first proposed the Big Bang theory; → universe.

Eddington-Sweet time scale
  مرپل ِ زمانی ِ ادینگتون-سوییت   
marpel-e zamâni-ye Eddington-Sweet

Fr.: échelle de temps d'Eddington-Sweet   

The time required for the redistribution of → angular momentum due to → meridional circulation. The Eddington-Sweet time for a uniformly → rotating star is expressed as: τES = τKH . GM / (Ω2 R3), where τKH is the → Kelvin-Helmholtz time scale, R, M, and L designate the radius, mass, and luminosity respectively, Ω the → angular velocity, and G the → gravitational constant. The Eddington-Sweet time scale can be approximated by τES≅ τKH / χ, where χ is the ratio of the → centrifugal force to → gravity. For the Sun, χ ≅ 10-5 resulting in an Eddington-Sweet time scale which is too long (1012 years), i.e. unimportant. In contrast, for a rotating → massive star  χ is not so much less than 1. Hence the Eddington-Sweet circulation is very important in massive stars.

Named after the prominent British astrophysicist Arthur S. Eddington (1882-1944), who was the first to suggest these currents (in The Internal Constitution of the Stars, Dover Pub. Inc., New York, 1926) and P. A. Sweet who later quantified them (1950, MNRAS 110, 548); → time scale.


Fr.: tourbillon   

A deviation in the steady flow of a fluid causing a vortex-like motion running contrary to the general flow.
Meteo.: A small disturbance of wind in a large wind flow, which can produce turbulent conditions or turbulence.

Late M.E., from O.E. ed- "turning" + ea "water;" akin to O.N. itha.

Gižâv, from dialectical Kurd. "whirlpool," from giž "turning," Pers. gij "giddy-headed, vertigio;" Laki géž "whirlpool," vagéža "whirlwind" + âv, variant âb "water" (Mid.Pers. âb "water;" O.Pers. ap- "water;" Av. ap- "water;" cf. Skt. áp- "water;" Hitt. happa- "water;" PIE āp-, ab- "water, river;" cf. Gk. Apidanos, proper noun, a river in Thessalia; L. amnis "stream, river" (from *abnis); O.Ir. ab "river," O.Prus. ape "stream," Lith. upé "stream;" Latv. upe "brook").

eddy current
  جریان ِ فوکو   
jarayân-e Foucault (#)

Fr.: courant de Foucault   

An induced current circulating in masses of metal moving in a magnetic field or located in a changing magnetic field. Also known as → Foucault current.

eddy; → current.

eddy diffusion
  پخش ِ گیژاوی   
paxš-e gižâvi

Fr.: diffusion turbulente   

A macroscopic process that occurs in a → fluid because of the relative motions induced by the non-uniform → turbulent motions of the fluid. Also known as turbulent → diffusion. Eddy diffusion may occur in an atmosphere if it is unstable against turbulence. It dominates the atmosphere below the homopause. See also → molecular diffusion.

eddy; → diffusion.

  ۱) لبه؛ ۲) تیغه   
1) labé (#); 2) tiqé (#)

Fr.: 1) bord; 2) tranchant, fil   

1) A line or border at which a surface terminates.
2) The thin, sharp side of the blade of a cutting instrument or weapon (
3) In → graph theory, any line in a → graph that joins two distinct → nodes. Any pair of → vertices.

M.E. egge; O.E. ecg "corner, edge;" cf. Ger. Eck "corner;" PIE base *ak- "sharp, pointed" (cf. L. acies; Gk. akis "point").

1) Labé "limb, edge," from lab "lip;" Mid.Pers. lap; cognate with L. labium; E. lip; Ger. Lefze.
2) Tiqé "blade of a knife or sword," from tiq "blade," tiz "sharp," variants tig, tež, tej, tij; Mid.Pers. tigr, têz, têž "sharp," O.Pers. tigra- "pointed," tigra.xauda- "pointed helmet (epithet of Scythians);" Av. tiγra- "pointed," tiγray- "arrow," tiži.arštay- "with the pointed spear," cf. Skt. tikta- "sharp, pungent, bitter," tejas- "sharpness, edge, point or top of a flame;" PIE base *st(e)ig- "to stick; pointed." Cognates in other IE languages: Gk. stizein "to prick, puncture," stigma "mark made by a pointed instrument," L. in-stigare "to goad," O.H.G. stehhan, Ger. stechen "to stab, prick," Du. stecken, O.E. sticca "rod, twig, spoon," E. stick.

edge-on galaxy
  کهکشان ِ پهلونما   
kahkašân-e pahlunemâ

Fr.: galaxie vue par la tranche   

A → spiral galaxy oriented edge-on to our view. → face-on galaxy.

edge; on, from O.E. on, variant of an "in, on, into" (cf. Du. aan; Ger. an; Goth. ana "on, upon"), from PIE base *ano "on" (cf. Av. ana "on;" Gk. ana "on, upon;" L. an-); → galaxy.

Kahkašân, → galaxy; pahlunemâ "showing the side," from pahlu, → side, + nemâ, from nemudan "to show, display," → display.

virâstan (#)

Fr.: mettre au point, préparer, éditer   

To modify or prepare for publication or public presentation by checking, improving, cutting, rearranging, etc.

Back formation from editor or from Fr. éditer, or from L. editus, p.p. of edere "bring forth, produce," from → ex- "out," + -dere, combining form of dare "to give," → datum.

Virâstan, from Mid.Pers. virâstan "to arrange, prepare, restore," from prefix vi- "apart, away from, out" (Av. vi-; O.Pers. viy- "apart, away;" cf. Skt. vi- "apart, asunder, away, out;" L. vitare "to avoid, turn aside") + râstan "to arrange, to set in order," → coordinate.

  ۱) ویرایش؛ ۲) ویراست   
1) virâyeš (#); 2) virâst (#)

Fr.: édition   

1) The act or process of editing.
2) A version of anything, printed or not, presented to the public.

Verbal noun of → edit.

virâstâr (#)

Fr.: rédacteur, éditeur   

1) A person who edits material for publication or public presentation.
2) A computer program that enables creating and editing text files.

Agent noun of → edit.


Fr.: rédaction, éditorial   

1) An article in a newspaper or other periodical or on a website presenting the opinion of the publisher, writer, or editor.
2) A statement broadcast on radio or television that presents the opinion of the owner, manager, or the like, of the program, station, or channel (

editor + -i- + → -al.

farhixtan (#)

Fr.: éduquer   

To give knowledge or develop the faculties and powers of somebody by teaching. instruction.

From L. educatus, p.p. of educare "bring up, rear, educate," from → ex- "out" + ducere "to lead."

Farhixtan, "educate," literally "drawing forward, pulling up;" from far- perfection prefix, → pro-, + hanjidan "to draw," → culture.

farhizeš (#)

Fr.: éducation   

The act or process of educating.
The knowledge or abilities gained through being educated.

Verbal noun of → educate.

  ا ُسکر   

Fr.: effet   

1) Something brought about by a → cause or agent; a result.
2) A scientific law, hypothesis, or phenomenon, such as the → Compton effect, → Coriolis effect, → Doppler effect, → diamond ring effect, → photoelectric effect, and so on.

From O.Fr. effect, from L. effectus "accomplishment, performance," from stem of efficere "to work out, accomplish," from → ex- "out" + facere "to do, to make," from PIE base *dhe- "to put, to do;" cf. Mod.Pers. dâdan "to give," Mid.Pers. dâdan "to give," O.Pers./Av. dā- "to give, grant, yield," dadāiti "he gives;" Skt. dadáti "he gives," Gk. didomi "I give," tithenai "to put, set, place;" L. dare "to give, offer;" Rus. delat "to do;" O.H.G. tuon, Ger. tun, O.E. don "to do."

Oskar, from os-, → ex-, + kar-, kardan "to do, make;" Mid.Pers. kardan; O.Pers./Av. kar- "to do, make, build," Av. kərənaoiti "he makes;" cf. Skt. kr- "to do, to make," krnoti "he makes, he does," karoti "he makes, he does," karma "act, deed;" PIE base kwer- "to do, to make."

  ا ُسکرمند   

Fr.: effectif   

Actually in operation or in force; concrete; real.

M.E., from L. effectivus "practical," from effect(us), p.p. of efficere, → effect + -ivus "-ive."

Oskarmand, from oskar, → effect + -mand possession suffix.

effective aperture
  دهانه‌ی ِ ا ُسکرمند   
dahâne-ye oskarmand

Fr.: ouverture effective   

Of an antenna, the ratio of the extracted power by the antenna to the power per unit area (power density) in the incident wave.

effective; → aperture.

effective Eddington parameter
  پارامون ِ ادینگتون ِ اسکرمند   
pârâmun-e Eddington-e oskarmand

Fr.: paramètre d'Eddington effectif   

The effective value of the → Eddington parameter in a non-homogeneous system (porous opacity).

effective; → Eddington limit; → parameter.

effective focal length
  درازا‌ی ِ کانونی ِ ا ُسکرمند   
derâzâ-ye kânuni-ye oskarmand

Fr.: longueur focale effective   

The focal length of an imaging system, which consists of several lenses or mirrors.

effective; → focal length.

effective gravity
  گرانی ِ اُسکرمند   
gerâni-ye oskarmand

Fr.: gravité effective   

In a → rotating star, the sum of the → gravity and the → centrifugal acceleration. The effective gravity is a function of the rotation velocity (Ω) and the → colatitude (θ). At the pole (θ = 0°) and the equator (θ = 90°) the effective gravity is radial. See also → total gravity.

effective; → gravity.

effective radius
  شعاع ِ ا ُسکرمند   
šo'â'-e oskarmand

Fr.: rayon effectif   

Of a galaxy, the distance from its center within which half of the total luminosity is included.

effective; → radius.

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