Fr.: champ inflaton
A hypothetical → scalar field that provides a theoretical basis for → inflation in the early → Big Bang history of the → Universe. The inflaton field would fill space with the same energy at every point. In general, the scalar field can vary with time and space, though to a first approximation everywhere in the Universe will have the same value at any time. The field has a particle associated with it, called → inflaton, just as the → electromagnetic field is associated with the → photon. The inflaton field is characterized also by a → negative pressure that would yield a tremendous → repulsive gravity during a brief lapse of time. In the earliest moments of the Universe, space is uniformly filled with an inflaton field, whose value places it higher up on its → potential energy curve. The inflaton's → potential energy would drop in a tiny fraction of a second, on the order of 10-35 seconds. And yet, during that brief instant, space would expand by a colossal factor, of at least 1030.
Fr.: mettre une désinence à, fléchir
1) General: To bend in, to turn from a direct line or course.
From M.E. inflecten, from L. inflectere "to bend in, bow, curve," figuratively, "to change," from → in- + flectere "to bend, to curve," of uncertain origin.
Verbal noun of → inflect.
Fr.: point d'inflexion
Fr.: désinentiel, flexionnel
Fr.: affixe inflexionnelle
An → inflection that is added at the end of a root word. In English there are eight inflectional affixes, which are all suffixes. They always follow derivational suffixes and do not change the category of a word.
Fr.: afflux, débit entrant
1) The act or process of flowing in or into. Something that flows
in or into. Opposite of → outflow.
1) hanâyeš (#) ; 2) hanâyidan (#)
Fr.: 1) influence; 2) influencer, influer
1) The act or power of producing an → effect,
especially inconspicuously; the effect of power exerted.
M.E., from O.Fr. influence, from L. influentia "stellar emanation" (it was thought an ethereal liquid flowed from the stars and affected the destiny of humans), also "a flow of water, a flowing in," from L. influentem (nominative influens), pr.p. of influere "to flow into," from → in- "into, in, on, upon" + fluere "to flow;" PIE base *bhleu- "to swell, overflow;" cf. Gk. phluein "to boil over, bubble up," phlein "to abound."
Hanâyeš "influence" (Borhân-e Qâte'; Kasravi). We suggest the following origin for this word: ultimately from Proto-Ir. *ha-nai "to conduct, direct, guide, lead," from *ham-naiH-, from prefix *ham- "together," also an intensive prefix, → com-, + *naiH- "to lead, conduct, guide;" cf. Av. naii- (naŷ-) "to lead, guide," naiieiti "leads;" O.Pers. nay- "to lead, bring" anaya "leads;" Mid.Pers. nidan, ônidan, nay- "to lead, bring;" Sogd. n'y- "to lead;" Choresmian (prefixed, + *apa-) bny- "to remove;" Skt. nī- "to lead," náyati "leads." In dialects: Anâraki niye "to bring, lead;" Kurd. (prefixed) ânin, inân, (with prefix ham-) hânin, hênân "to bring, lead to," Tâleši ânân, ânoe "to bring together two edges;" Zazaki ân- "to bring;" Qohrudi hunda, hun- "to bring, lead;" Târi niya-, neg- "to lead;" Lasgardi (prefixed) bin- "to bring, carry;" Qomi niyé, Tafreši neyé "a jab or poke used for leading the cattle;" see also → relate.
1) To impart → knowledge of a fact or circumstance.
Azdâyidan, from Mid.Pers. azdênidan "to inform," from azd "information, proclamation; known" (loaned into Arm. azd), from O.Pers. azdā "known," azdā kar "to become known;" Av. azdā "known;" Sogdian 'zd' "informed, known;" cf. Skt. addhā' "manifestly; certainly, truly," addhāti "sage."
A person who gives → information.
From → inform + -ant a suffix forming adjectives and nouns from verbs.
1) Knowledge gained through study, communication, research, instruction, etc.
Verbal noun of → inform.
Fr.: contenu d'information
Fr.: entropie de l'information
The measure of information, which is usually expressed by the average number of bits needed for storage or communication. In other words, the degree to which the values of a → random variable X are dispersed. If the → probability density function of X is P(x), the entropy is defined by: H(X) = -Σ P(x) log P(x). Also called → Shannon entropy.
Fr.: flot d'information
The flow of data into a system or to the end users.
Fr.: paradoxe de l'information
A paradox raised in 1976 by S. Hawking (1942-2018) whose analysis of the thermodynamic properties of → black holes led him to the prediction that black holes are not in fact black, but radiate due to quantum effects. This implied that, due to the → Hawking radiation, a black hole would eventually evaporate away, leaving nothing. This deduction presented a problem for → quantum mechanics, which maintains that information can never be lost. This topic is a matter of intense debate. Many solutions have been proposed, but all of them have serious drawbacks. In order to analyze better these solutions one needs a quantum gravity theory, which does not exist at the moment. In brief, either the idea of → quantum unitarity must be given up, or a mechanism should be found by which information is not lost after it falls into a black hole.
dâneš-e azdâyeš azdâyik (#)
Same as → informatics.
Fr.: technologie de l'informtion
The science and activity of receiving, storing, processing, and transmitting information by using → computers.
negare-ye azdâyeš (#)
Fr.: théorie de l'information
The mathematical theory that defines, quantifies,
and analyzes the concept of → information.
It involves → probability theory in
→ transmission of → messages
when the → bits of information are subject to various
distortions. Its goal is to enable as much information as possible to be reliably
stored on a medium, retrieved, or communicated.