An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 662

Fr.: incohérent, inconsistant   

1) Lacking in consistency, agreement, or compatibility; at variance.
2) Containing contradictory elements.
4) Maths: (of two or more equations) not having one common set of values of the variables: x + 2y = 5 and x + 2y = 6 are inconsistent
5) Logic: (of a set of propositions) Enabling an explicit contradiction to be validly derived (

in-; → consistent.

  ۱) افزودن؛ ۲) افزایش   
1) afzudan; 2) afzâyeš

Fr.: 1) accroître, augmenter; croître, s'accroître, augmenter; 2) accroissement   

1) To make or become greater, in number, size, degree, etc..
2) The act of increasing. The amount by which something increases.

M.E., from O.Fr. encreiss-, pr.p. stem of encreistre, from L. increscere "to increase, to grow upon," from → in- "in" + crescere "to grow," → crescent.

Afzudan, from Mid.Pers. abzudan "to increase, grow," O.Pers. abijav- "to increase, add to, promote," from abi-, aiby- "in addition to; to; against" + root jav- "press forward," Av. gav- "to hasten, drive," Sk. jav- "to press forward, impel quickly, excite," javate "hastens."


Fr.: incrément   

The amount by which a varying quantity increases between two of its stages. In → calculus, the Greek letter Δ (delta) is used to denote an increment; e.g. Δx is an increment of x, contrasted to → decrement.

Increment, from L. incrementum "growth, increase," from stem of increscere "to grow in or upon" from → in- "in" + crescere "to grow."

Fazâyé, from fazâ shortened present stem of afzudan "to add, increase" (Mid.Pers. abzudan "to increase, grow;" O.Pers. abijav- "to increase, add to, promote," from abi-, aiby- "in addition to; to; against" + root jav- "press forward;" Av. gav- "to hasten, drive;" Skt. jav- "to press forward, impel quickly, excite," javate "hastens") + -y- euphonic infix + noun/nuance suffix.

  ناهدارمند، ناهدار   
nâhedârmand, nâhedâr

Fr.: indéfini   

Not → definite; without fixed or specified limit.

From → in- "not, without" + → definite.

indefinite integral
  دُرُستال ِ ناهدارمند   
dorostâl-e nâhedârmand

Fr.: intégrale indéfinie   

Math.: An integral without upper and lower limits. The general antiderivative of a function. → definite integral.

definite; → integral.

nâvâbasté (#)

Fr.: indépendant   

Not dependent.

From negation prefix → in- + → dependent.

independent events
  رویدادهای ِ ناوابسته   
ruydâdhâ-ye nâvâbasté (#)

Fr.: événements indépendants   

Statistics: Two events if the occurrence of one of them gives no → information about whether or not the other event will occur; these events have no influence on each other.

independent; → event.

independent random variables
  ورتنده‌های ِ کاتوره‌ی ِ ناوابسته   
vatandehâ-ye kâture-ye nâvâbasté

Fr.: variables aléatoires indépendantes   

Statistics: Two random variables X and Y if and only if the value of X has no influence on the value of Y and vice versa.

dependent; → random; → variable.

independent variable
  ورتنده‌ی ِ ناوابسته   

Fr.: variable indépendante   

Math.: A variable whose value determines the value of other variables. For example, x, in the expression y = f(x), is the independent variable. See also → dependent variable.

independent; → variable.


Fr.: indéterminisme   

Philosophy: The doctrine that there are events which do not correspond with determinism and therefore are uncaused in some sense.
Quantum physics: The claim that the most basic constituents of matter behave indeterministically, in accordance with such properties as the → uncertainty principle.

in-; → determinism.

Nâtarmbâvari, nâtarmvari, from nâ- negation prefix + (â)tarmbâvari, (â)tarmvari, → determinism.

  ۱، ۲، ۳) دیشن؛ ۴) فهرست   
1, 2, 3) dišan; 4) fehrest (#)

Fr.: 1, 2) indice; 3) index   

1) Math.: A number or symbol, often written as a → subscript or → superscript to a mathematical expression, that indicates an operation to be performed, an ordering relation, or a use of the associated expression.
2) Physics: A measure of a particular property; e.g. → adiabatic index; → color index; → index of refraction.
3) In some → astrolabes, the → rule.
4) A sequential arrangement of items, especially in alphabetical or numerical order. → Index Catalogue.

Index, from L. index "forefinger, pointer, sign," literally "anything which points out," from indicare "point out, show," from in- "in" + dicare "to proclaim," from stem of dicere "to speak, to say;" PIE base *deik- "to point out" (cf. Av. daēs- " to show;" Skt. dic- "to point out, show;" Gk. deiknynai "to prove;" O.H.G. zeigon; Ger. zeigen "to show;" O.E. teon "to accuse," tæcan "to teach").

1) Dišan, from diš-, simple aorist of Av. daēs- "to show," as above, + suffix -an.
2) Fehrest, from Mid.Pers. payrâstag "arranged," from payrâstan "to arrange; to adorn" (Mod.Pers. pirâstan); Proto-Ir. *pati-rāsta-, from *pati "to, at, for, in" (cf. Mid.Pers. pad "to, at, for, in;" Mod.Pers. be, beh; Old.Pers. paity; Av. paiti "to, toward, in, at;" Skt. práti; Gk. poti) + *rād- "to direct, arrange" (cf. Mod.Pers. raj "line, row," variants raž, rak, râk, rezg (Lori), ris, risé, radé, rasté, râsté, related to râst "right, true; just, upright, straight;" Mid.Pers. râst "true, straight, direct;" Sogdian rəšt "right;" O.Pers. rāsta- "straight, true," rās- "to be right, straight, true;" Av. rāz- "to direct, put in line, set," razan- "order;" cf. Skt. raj- "to direct, stretch," rjuyant- "walking straight;" Gk. orektos "stretched out;" L. regere "to lead straight, guide, rule," p.p. rectus "right, straight;" PIE base *reg- "move in a straight line," hence, "to direct, rule").

Index Catalogue (IC)
  کاتالوگ ِ فهرست   
kâtâlog-e fehrest

Fr.: Index Catalogue   

Either of two catalogues of non-stellar objects, which serve as supplements to the → New General Catalogue.

index; → catalog

index of refraction
  دیشن ِ شکست   
disšan-e šekast

Fr.: indice de réfraction   

Same as → refractive index.

index; → refraction.

Indian numeral system
  راژمان ِ عددهای ِ هندی   
râžmân-e adahâ-ye Hendi

Fr.: numération indienne   

The → numeral system consisting of the numerals 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 which evolved into the system we use today. The Indian numerals was a place-value or positional system. The Indians were the first to develop a base 10 positional system. Same as → Hindu-Arabic numeral system.

Indian, from India, → Indus; → numeral; → system.

nil (#)

Fr.: indigo   

A color between blue and violet.

From Sp. indico, Portuguese endego, and Du. (via Portuguese) indigo, from L. indicum "indigo," from Gk. indikon "blue dye from India," literally "Indian (substance)," neuter of indikos "Indian," → Indus.

Nil "indigo color; the indigo plant;" Mid.Pers. nil; cf. Skt. nīlī, nīlā "the indigo plant; indigo color."

nâsarrâst (#)

Fr.: indirect   

Not in a direct course, path, action, or procedure.

in-; → direct.

indirect object
  کندار ِ ناسرراست   
kondâr-e nâsarrâst

Fr.: objet indirect   

A word or group of words representing the person or thing with reference to which the action of a verb is performed. In English generally coming between the verb and the direct object and paraphrasable as the object of a preposition, usually to or for, following the direct object, as the boy in He gave the boy a book (

indirect; → object.


Fr.: 1) individu; 2) individuel   

1a) A single human being, as distinguished from a group (
1b) A distinct, indivisible entity; a single thing, being, instance, or item (
1c) Logic: An → object or element taken as the → subject of the → predicates of → first-order logic.
2) Of, pertaining to, or characteristic of a particular person or thing. → individual constant, → individual variable.

M.E., from M.L. individualis, from L. individuus "indivisible," from → in- "not, opposite of" + dividuus "divisible," from dividere, → divide.

Takâl, from tak, → single, + suffix -âl, → -al; takâli with adj. suffix -i.

individual constant
  پایای ِ تکال   
pâyâ-ye takâl

Fr.: constant individuel   

In predicate logic: A → word or → expression that represents a → specific  → individual or → object. A single object can be denoted by multiple individual constants, reflecting the fact that objects can have multiple names. On the other hand, any individual constant can only denote one object. Individual constants are represented by lower case letters from the beginning of the alphabet: a, b, c.

individual; → constant.

individual variable
  ورتنده‌ی ِ تکال   
vartande-ye takâl

Fr.: variable individuel   

In → predicate logic, a variable which represents an unspecified → subject. Individual variables work just as do variables in algebra, they stand in for a value, but have no fixed value of their own. They are represented by lower case letters taken from the end of the alphabet x, y, z; and if additional variables are needed by u, v, w, as well.

individual; → variable.

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