# An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and AstrophysicsEnglish-French-Persian

## فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

### M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 1076
 Planck era   دوران ِ پلانک   dowrân-e PlanckFr.: ère de Planck   The first 10-43 seconds of the Universe's existence, when the size of the Universe was roughly the Planck length and during which quantum effects of gravity were significant. Also called Planck epoch. Our understanding of the Planck era is poor because theory which encompasses both quantum mechanics and general relativity is needed to be developed.→ Planck; → era. Planck function   کریای ِ پلانک   karyâ-ye PlanckFr.: fonction de Planck   Same as → Planck's blackbody formula.→ Planck; → function. Planck length   درازای ِ پلانک   derâzâ-ye Planck (#)Fr.: longueur de Planck   The size limit, lP = √ (ħ G/ c3), about 10-33 cm, at which Einstein's notions of space-time are supposed to break down, and space is predicted to become "foam like."→ Planck; → length. Planck mass   جرم ِ پلانک   jerm-e PlanckFr.: masse de Planck   1) The unit of mass in Planck's system of physical units, mP = √ (ħ c/ G) = 2.176 × 10-8 kg. It is also the mass of a → black hole whose → Compton wavelength is comparable to its → Schwarzschild radius. 2) The fundamental unit of mass in the theory of gravitation. It is the mass of hypothetical particles where gravitational attraction for eachother would be as strong as the electric force between two electrons separated by the same distance (Steven Weinberg).→ Planck; → mass. Planck postulate   فراوَس ِ پلانک   farâvas-e PlanckFr.: postulat de Planck   The postulate that the energy of oscillators in a blackbody is quantized by E = nhν, where n = 1, 2, 3, ..., h is Planck's constant, and ν the frequency.→ Planck; → postulate. Planck Satellite   ماهواره‌ی ِ پلانک   mâhvâre-ye PlanckFr.: Satellite Planck   A European Space Agency (ESA) mission to map the full sky in the 30 GHz to 1 THz range and to measure the → anisotropies of the → cosmic microwave background (CMB) with a sensitivity set by fundamental limits, i.e. photon noise and contamination by foregrounds. It was launched on 14 May 2009, together with the → Herschel Satellite. Its observing position is a halo orbit around the L2 → Lagrangian point, some 1.5 million km from Earth. Its → Gregorian-like off-axis telescope has an effective aperture of 1.5 m and images the sky on two sets of feed-horns. The Low Frequency Instrument (LFI, at frequencies 30, 44, 70 GHz) amplifies with High Electron Mobility Transistors cooled at 20 K the radiation collected by 13 horns. The High Frequency Instrument (HFI, at 100, 143, 217, 353, 545, 857 GHz) detects the shorter waves with 52 bolometers cooled at only 0.1 degree above the → absolute zero. Both instruments can detect both the total intensity and polarization of photons. The Planck mission is intended to provide maps with a sensitivity of a few micro-Kelvin and an angular resolution down to 5 arcmin, which is considered as a major improvement with respect to the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (→ WMAP) launched by the NASA in 2002. Planck will provide a major source of information relevant to several cosmological and astrophysical issues, such as testing theories of the early Universe and the origin of cosmic structure. It will also provide to astronomers 9 complete maps of the full sky at wavelengths from 0.3 mm to 1 cm, that complement the 4 maps taken by the → IRAS satellite in the 2.5 to 100 micrometer range.→ Planck; → satellite. Planck scale   مرپل ِ پلانک   marple-e PlanckFr.: échelle de Plancck   1) A general term for anything roughly the size of the → Planck length. 2) Similarly, an energy on the order of the → Planck energy.→ Planck; → scale. Planck spectrum   بیناب ِ پلانک   binâb-e PlanckFr.: spectrum de Planck   Same as → blackbody spectrum.→ Planck; → spectrum. Planck time   زمان ِ پلانک   zamân-e PlanckFr.: temps de Planck   The time representing the → Planck length divided by the → speed of light. It is expressed by: tP = (Għ/c5)1/2≅ 5.4 x 10-44 s, where G is the → gravitational constant, ħ is the → reduced Planck's constant, and c is the → speed of light. At the Planck time, the mass density of the Universe is thought to approach the → Planck density.→ Planck; → time. Planck units   یکاهای ِ پلانک   yekâhâ-ye Planck (#)Fr.: unités de Planck   A set of → natural units in which the normalized units are: the gravitational constant, Planck's constant, the speed of light, the Coulomb constant, and Boltzmann's constant.→ Planck; → unit. Planck's blackbody formula   دیسول ِ سیه‌جسم ِ پلانک   disul-e siyah jesm-e PlanckFr.: formule du corps noir de Planck   A formula that determines the distribution of intensity of radiation that prevails under conditions of thermal equilibrium at a temperature T: Bv = (2hν3 / c2)[exp(hν / kT) - 1]-1 where h is Planck's constant and ν is the frequency.→ Planck; → blackbody; → formula. Planck's constant   پایای ِ پلانک   pâyâ-ye Planck (#)Fr.: constante de Planck   → Planck; → constant. Planck's radiation law   قانون ِ تابش ِ پلانک   qânun-e tâbeš-e PlanckFr.: loi du rayonnement de Planck   An equation that expresses the energy radiated per unit area per unit time per unit wavelength range by a blackbody as a function of temperature. It is expressed by → Planck's blackbody formula.→ Planck; → radiation; → law. plane   ۱) هامُن؛ ۲) تخت   1) hâmon (#); 2) taxt (#)Fr.: plan   1) (n.) a flat or level surface. 2) (adj.) Of or pertaining to planes or plane figures.1) From L. plantum "flat surface," noun use of adj. planus "flat, level, plain." 2) From L. planus, as above.1) Hâmon, variant of hâmun "plain, level ground;" Mid.Pers. hâmÃ´n "level, flat;" Proto-Iranian *hāma-van-, from *hāma- "same, equally, even; together, with" (Mod.Pers./Mid.Pers. ham-; O.Pers./Av. ham-; cf. Skt. sam-; also O.Pers./Av. hama- "one and the same;" Skt. sama-; Gk. homos-; originally identical with PIE numeral *sam- "one," from *som-. The Av. ham- appears in various forms: han- (before gutturals, palatals, dentals) and also hem-, hen-) + *-van- suffix. 2) Taxt "flat;" Mid.Pers. taxtag "tablet, plank, (chess)board." plane figure   شکل ِ هامن، ~ تخت   šekl-e hÃ¢mon, ~ taxtFr.: figure plane   A two-dimensional geometric figure. The points of the figure lie entirely in a plane.→ plane; → figure. plane mirror   آینه‌ی ِ تخت   âyene-ye taxt (#)Fr.: miroir plan   A mirror whose reflective surface is neither concave nor convex.→ plane; → mirror. plane of polarization   هامن ِ قطبش   hâmon-e qotbešFr.: plan de polarisation   In a → linearly polarized light, a plane perpendicular to the → plane of vibration and containing the direction of propagation of light. It is also the plane containing the direction of propagation and the magnetic vector (H) of the electromagnetic light wave.→ plane; → polarization. plane of rotation   هامن ِ چرخش   hâmon-e carxešFr.: plan de rotation   For a rotating object, the plane → perpendicular to the → rotation axis.→ plane; → rotation. plane of the sky   هامن ِ آسمان   hâmon-e âsmânFr.: plan du ciel   An imaginary plane that is perpendicular to the → line of sight.→ plane; → sky. plane of vibration   هامن ِ شیوش   hâmon-e šivešFr.: plan de vibration   In a → linearly polarized light, a plane perpendicular to the → plane of polarization and containing the direction of propagation of light. It is also the plane containing the direction of propagation and the electric vector (E) of the electromagnetic light wave.→ plane; → polarization.