An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 1076
parent element
  بن‌پار ِ پرمار   
bonpâr-e permâr

Fr.: élément parent   

A radioactive element that spontaneously decays into a new substance. The product of this decay is known as a "daughter" element.

parent; → element.

parent galaxy
  کهکشان ِ پرمار   
kahkešân-e permâr

Fr.: galaxie parente   

Of a high redshift supernova, the galaxy in which the event has occurred.

parent; → galaxy.

parent molecule
  مولکول ِ پرمار   
molekul-e permâr

Fr.: molécule parente   

The molecule initially produced when a comet nucleus sublimates, soon changed to different daughter molecules because of solar radiation.

parent; → molecule.


Fr.: parhélie   

An atmospheric optical phenomenon, seen as a bright spot sometimes appearing at either side of the → Sun, often on a luminous ring or → halo and at the same angular elevation as the Sun. Parhelia are caused by the → refraction and → reflection of → sunlight by → ice crystals suspended in the Earth's → atmosphere. Also called mock Sun or sundog.

From Gk. parhelion "a mock Sun," from → para- "beside" + helios "sun," → helio-.

Parâhur, from parâ-, → para-, + hur "sun," → helio-.

hamâli (#)

Fr.: parité   

1) General: Equality, as in amount, status, or character; equivalence; correspondence; similarity; analogy. Opposite of disparity.
2) Physics: The principle of space-inversion invariance.
An operation that reverses the algebraic sign of the coordinate axes used to describe a system, i.e. (x, y, z) → (-x, -y, -z). The parity principle is important in quantum mechanics because the wave functions which represent particles can behave in different ways upon transformation of the coordinate system. The parity is 1 (or even) if the wave function of the system is unchanged by an inversion of the coordinate system; it is -1 (or odd) if the wave function is changed only in sign. Parity is conserved in strong interactions, but not in weak ones.
3) Math.: The attribute, of an integer, of being even or odd. Thus, it can be said that 8 and 12 have the same parity, whereas 5 and 16 have opposite parity.
See also: → charge-parity symmetry, → even parity, → parity conservation, → parity symmetry, → parity violation.

From M.Fr. parité, from L.L. paritas "equality," from L. adj. par "equal."

Hamâli, quality noun of hamâl, → pair (equivalent 2).

parity conservation
  پتایش ِ همالی   
patâyeš-e hamâli

Fr.: conservation de parité   

In quantum mechanics, the condition of parity in strong and electrodynamic interactions, where it remains constant and does not change with time. In other words, parity conservation implies that Nature is symmetrical and makes no distinction between right- and left-handed rotations or between opposite sides of a subatomic particle. Thus, for example, two similar radioactive particles spinning in opposite directions about a vertical axis should emit their decay products with the same intensity upward and downward. Same as → parity symmetry.

parity; → conservation.

parity symmetry
  همامونی ِ همالی   
hamâmuni-ye hamâli

Fr.: symétrie de parité   

The invariance of physical laws under a transformation that changes the sign of the space coordinates. Parity symmetry is sometimes called mirror symmetry. It is known that the parity symmetry is violated in some weak interactions, while it is well preserved in all other three interactions (gravitational, electromagnetic, strong). Same as → P-symmetry and → parity conservation.

parity; → symmetry.

parity violation
  اِناهش ِ همالی   
enâheš-e hamâli

Fr.: violation de la parité   

In quantum mechanics, the condition of → parity in the → weak interaction. For example, the emitted → beta particles in → radioactive decay of → cobalt-60 nuclei are not equally distributed between the two poles of cobalt-60. More beta particles emerge from one pole than the other, and it would be possible to distinguish the mirror image nuclei from their counterparts.

parity; → violation.

Parker instability
  ناپایداری ِ پارکر   
nâpâydâri-ye Parker

Fr.: instabilité de Parker   

A type of instability found in some astrophysical phenomena involving → magnetic fields; it arises if a gas layer is supported by the horizontal magnetic fields against → gravity. Also called → magnetic buoyancy. Briefly, this instability works as follows. Consider a uniform disk of gas which is coupled to a magnetici field that is parallel to the disk. Suppose that the disk is gravitationally stratified in the vertical direction, and is in dynamical equilibrium under the balance of gravity and pressure (thermal and magnetic). Now consider a small perturbation which causes the field lines to rise in certain parts of the disk and sink in others. Because of gravity, the gas loaded onto the field lines tends to slide off the peaks and and sink into the valleys. The increase of mass loads in the valleys makes them sink further, while the magnetic pressure causes the peaks to rise as their mass load decreases. Consequently, the initial perturbation is amplified, causing the production of density fluctuations in an initially uniform disk. The characteristic scale for the Parker instability is ~4πH, where H is the scale height of the diffuse component of the disk. For the Milky Way, where H ~ 150 pc, this scale is about 1-2 kpc. Numerical simulations show that the density contrast generated by the Parker instability is generally of order unity before the instability saturates. This implies that the Parker instability on its own may not be able to drive collapse on large scales. Nevertheless, it may trigger gravitational instability in a marginally unstable disk and/or induce strong motions in the medium, thereby acting as a source of turbulence on large scales (see, e.g., Houjun Mo, Frank van den Bosch, Simon White, 2010, Galaxy Formation and Evolution, The University Press, Cambridge, UK).

First studied by E. N. Parker, 1966, ApJ 145, 811; → instability.

Parker Solar Probe
  گمانه‌ی ِ خورشیدی ِ پارکر   
gomâne-ye xoršidi-ye Parker

Fr.: Parker Solar Probe   

A NASA space mission launched on August 12, 2018 to study the outer corona of the Sun at very close distances. Parker Solar Probe is the first space mission to penetrate into solar corona as close as about 10 solar radii. It will approach the Sun to this distance 25 times. Approaching the Sun to such distances is a big technological challenge. The main goals of the mission are to answer these questions: Why is the solar corona so hotter than the solar surface? How is the solar wind accelerated? How are the energetic particles produced and transported?

Named after the physicist Eugene Newman Parker (1927-), who proposed the existence of the solar wind and did pioneering work for its interpretation.

Parkes Selected Region (PSR)
  ناحیه‌ی ِ گزیده‌ی ِ پارکس   
nâhiye-ye gozide-ye Parkes

Fr.: Région sélectionnée de Parkes   

A catalog of 397 radio sources between declinations +20° and +27° which were compiled from a finding survey made at 635 MHz with the 64m radio telescope at the Australian National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Parkes, N.S.W. and published in 1968. Originally abbreviated PSR, this catalog, which is also called PKS, replaces and improves on four earlier lists (1964 to 1966).

Parkes, proper noun; selected, p.p. of → select; → region.

parsec (pc)
pârsek (#)

Fr.: parsec   

A basic unit of astronomical distances, corresponding to a → trigonometric parallax of one second of arc. In other words, it is the distance at which one → astronomical unit (the mean radius of the Earth's orbit) subtends an angle of 1 arcsecond. 1 pc = 3.2616 → light-years = 206 265 astronomical units = 30.857 x 1012 km.

From parallax + second.


Fr.: parasélène   

An optical phenomenon resulting from the refraction and reflection of moonlight within ice crystals in cirrus cloud; also known as paraselene, mock Moon or moondog. It is the lunar counterpart of the → parhelion.

From Gk. para- "beside," → para-, + selene "moon," from Gk. selene "moon," related to selas "light, brightness, flame."

Pârâ-, → para-, + mâh, → moon.

Parseval's theorem
  فربین ِ پارسوال   
farbin-e Parseval

Fr.: théorème de Parseval   

A theorem relating the → Fourier coefficients to the function that they describe. It states that: (1/L) ∫ |f(x)|2dx (integrated from x0 to x0 + L) = (a0/2)2 + (1/2) Σ (ar2 + br2) (summed from r = 1 to ∞). In other words, the sum of the moduli squared of the complex Fourier coefficients is equal to the average value of |f(x)|2 over one period.

Named after Marc-Antoine Parseval (1755-1836), French mathematician; → theorem.


Fr.: partie   

1) A portion or division of a whole that is separate or distinct; piece, fragment, fraction, or section; constituent.
2) A section or division of a literary work (

M.E., from O.Fr. part "share, portion; character; dominion; side, path," from L. partem (nominative pars) "a part, piece, a share, a division; a party or faction," related to portio "share, portion," from PIE root *per- "to assign, allot;" cf. Pers. pâr, pâré "piece, part, portion, fragment;" as below.

Pâr, variant pâré "piece, part, portion," parré "portion, segment (of an orange)," pargâlé, "piece, portion; patch;" (dialects Kermâni pariké "portion, half;" Tabari perik "minute quantity, particle;" Lârestâni pakva "patch;" Borujerdi parru "patch"); Mid.Pers. pârag "piece, part, portion; gift, offering, bribe;" Av. pāra- "debt," from par- "to remunerate, equalize; to condemn;" PIE *per- "to sell, hand over, distribute; to assign;" Gk. peprotai "it has been granted;" L. pars, as above; Skt. purti- "reward;" Hitt. pars-, parsiya- "to break, crumble."

  پاری، پارال   
pâri (#), pârâl

Fr.: partiel   

Being such in part only; not total or general; incomplete.
See also: → partial derivative, → partial differential equation, → partial eclipse, → partial ionization zone, → partial lunar eclipse, → partial solar eclipse, → partial truth.

M.E. parcial, from O.Fr. parcial, from M.L. partialis "pertaining to a part," from L. pars, → part; → -al.

part; → -al.

partial derivative
  واخنه‌ی ِ پاری   
vâxane-ye pâri

Fr.: dérivée partielle   

The derivative of a function of two or more variables, e.g., z = f(x,y), with respect to one of the variables, the others being considered constants (denoted ∂z / ∂x).

partial; → derivative.

partial differential equation
  هموگش ِ دگرسانه‌ای با واخنه‌ی ِ پاری   
hamugeš-e degarsâne-yi bâ vâxane-ye pâri

Fr.: équation différentielle aux dérivées partielles   

A type of differential equation involving an unknown function (or functions) of several independent variables and its (or their) partial derivatives with respect to those variables.

partial; → differential; → equation.

partial eclipse
  گرفت ِ پاری   
gereft-e pâri

Fr.: éclipse partielle   

An eclipse that is not total. → partial lunar eclipse, → partial solar eclipse.

partial; → eclipse.

partial ionization zone
  زنار ِ یونش ِ پاری   
zonâr-e yoneš-e pâri

Fr.: zone d'ionisation partielle   

One of several zones of the stellar interior where increased → opacity can provide the → kappa mechanism to drive → pulsations. See also → Kramers' law. In these zones where the gases are partially ionized, part of the energy released during a layer's compression can be used for further ionization, rather than raising the temperature of the gas. Partial ionization zones modulate the flow of energy through the layers of the star and are the direct cause of → stellar pulsation. The partial ionization zones were first identified by the Russian astronomer Sergei A. Zhevakin (1916-2001) in the 1950s. In most stars there are two main ionization zones. The hydrogen partial ionization zone where both the ionization of neutral hydrogen (H ↔ H+ + e-) and the first ionization of helium (He ↔ He+ + e-) occurs in layers with a characteristic temperature of 1.5 x 104 K. The second, deeper zone is called the He+ partial ionization zone, and involves the second ionization of helium (He+↔ He++ + e-), which occurs deeper at a characteristic temperature of 4 x 104 K. The location of these ionization zones within the star determines its pulsational properties. In fact if the → effective temperature of the star is ≥ 7500 K, the pulsation is not active, because the ionization zones will be located very near to the surface. In this region the density is quite low and there is not enough mass available to drive the oscillations. This explains the blue (hot) edge of the instability strip on the → H-R diagram. Otherwise if a star's surface temperature is too low, ≤ 5500 K, the onset of efficient convection in its outer layers may dampen the oscillations. The red (cool) edge of the instability strip is believed to be the result of the damping effect of convection. He+ ionization is the driving agent in → Cepheids. See also → gamma mechanism.

partial; → ionization; → zone.

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