An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 1076

Fr.: potentiomètre   

An instrument for measuring electrical quantities by balancing an unknown potential difference against a known potential difference.

From potenti(al), → potential + -o + → -meter.

tavân (#)

Fr.: puissance, pouvoir   

1) Physics: The → rate of doing → work on transferring → energy, as expressed in ergs/sec, watts, etc. Same as → mechanical power.
2) Math.: An → exponent to which a given quantity is raised. The expression xn is therefore known as "x to the n-th power."

M.E. pouer(e), poer(e), from O.Fr. povoir, noun use of the infinitive in O.Fr., "to be able," from V.L. *potere, from L. potis "powerful, able, capable;" cognate with Av. paiti- "lord, husband;" Mod.Pers. -bad (sepah-bad "general, commander of an army"); Skt. pái- "master, husband;" Gk. posis "husband;" Lith. patis "husband."

Tavân "power, strength," tavânestan "to be powerful, able;" Mid.Pers. tuwan "power, might," from O.Pers./Av. base tav- "to have power, to be strong, to be able," Av. tavah- "power," təviši- "strength," Mod.Pers. tuš, tâb "power, ability," O.Pers. tauman- "power, strength," tunuvant- "powerful," Skt. tu- "to be strong, to have authority," tavas-, tavisa- "strong, energetic," tavisi- "power, strength."

power function
  کریای ِ توانی   
karyâ-ye tavâni

Fr.: fonction de puissance   

A function of the form f(x) = xn, where n is a → real number.

power; → function.

power law
  قانون ِ توانی   
qânun-e tavâni (#)

Fr.: loi de puissance   

A mathematical relationship between two quantities expressed by a → power function.

power; → law.

power series
  سری ِ توانی   
seri-ye tavâni (#)

Fr.: série de puissance   

A series in which the terms contain regularly increasing powers of a variable. In general, a0 + a1x + a2x2 + ... + anxn, where a0, a1, etc. are constants.

power; → series.

power spectral density
  چگالی ِ بینابی ِ توان   
cagâli-ye binâbi-ye tavân

Fr.: densité spectrale de puissance   

Same as → spectral density.

power; → spectral; → density.

power spectrum
  بیناب ِ توانی   
binâb-e tavâni (#)

Fr.: spectre de puissance   

The plot that gives the portion of a signal's power falling within given frequency bins. The most common way of generating a power spectrum is by using a discrete Fourier transform.

power; → spectrum.

power-law distribution
  واباژش با قانون ِ توانی   
vâbâžeš bâ qânun-e tavâni

Fr.: distribution en loi de puissance   

For a → random variable X, any → distribution which has the form: P(X ≥ x) = (k/x)α, where x is a value in the range defined for X, k > 0 is a parameter termed location parameter, and α > 0 is the → slope parameter.

power; → law; → distribution.

power-law elliptical galaxy
  کهکشان ِ بیضی‌گون با قانون ِ توانی   
kahkešÃ¢n-e beyzigun bâ qânun-e tavâni

Fr.: galaxie elliptique en loi de puissance   

An → elliptical galaxy whose → surface brightness can be approximated by a single → power law at small radii (r ≤ 10-20''). More modern interpretations have emphasized that these profiles can be better understood as the inward continuation of the galaxy's overall → Sersic profile, usually modified by an additional, nuclear-scale stellar component (S. P. Rusli et al., 2013, AJ 146, 160).

power; → law; → galaxy.

Poynting vector
  بردار ِ پوینتینگ   
bordâr-e Poynting

Fr.: vecteur de Poynting   

The amount of electromagnetic energy flowing through unit area, perpendicular to the direction of energy propagation, per unit time, given by (c/2 π)[E x H]. → Poynting's theorem.

Poynting's theorem; → vector.

Poynting's theorem
  فربین ِ پوینتینگ   
farbin-e Poynting

Fr.: théorème de Poynting   

The space through which electromagnetic radiation passes is filled with electric and magnetic fields at right angles to each other and to the direction of propagation of the radiation. The rate of energy transfer is given by the Poynting vector.

In honor of John Henry Poynting (1852-1914), English physicist; → theorem.

Poynting-Robertson drag
  کره‌ی ِ پوینتینگ-رابرتسون   
kerre-ye Poynting-Robertson

Fr.: traînée de Poynting-Robertson   

A loss of → orbital angular momentum by tiny ring particles associated with their absorption and re-emission of → solar radiation. Also known as the → Poynting-Robertson effect (Ellis et al., 2007, Planetary Ring Systems, Springer).

Poynting-Robertson; → drag.

Poynting-Robertson effect
  ا ُسکر ِ پوینتینگ-رابرتسون   
oskar-e Poynting-Robertson

Fr.: effet Poynting-Robertson   

The effect of → solar radiation on a small (centimeter-sized) particle in → orbit around the Sun that causes it to lose velocity and fall gradually into the Sun. The particle → absorbs solar radiation and → radiates the energy → isotropically in its own frame. The particle thereby preferentially radiates (and loses → angular momentum) in the forward direction in the → inertial frame of the Sun (aberration effect). This leads to a decrease in the particle's angular momentum and causes it to spiral sunward. In contrast, the → Yarkovsky effect is anisotropic; the object may be accelerated or decelerated.

Poynting's theorem; Howard Percy Robertson (1903-1961), American physicist and mathematician; → effect.

  ورز‌پذیر، ورزیدنی   
varzpazir, varzidani

Fr.: praticable   

That can be done or used or put into practice.

practice; → -able.


Fr.: pratique   

Concerned with practice, as opposed to → theory.

practice; → -al.

  ۱) ورزیدن؛ ۲) ورزه   
1) varzidan (#); 2) varzé (#)

Fr.: 1) pratiquer; 2) pratique   

1a) To do habitually or regularly.
1b) To exercise or follow as a profession.
2a) Performance; the doing of something (contrasted with → theory). See also → praxis.
2b) Way of doing something that is common or habitual.
2c) Frequent or systematic repetition in doing something.

M.E. practisen, practizen; O.Fr. practiser "to practice," from M.L. practicare "to do, perform," from L.L. practicus "practical," from Gk. praktikos "practical."

1) Varzidan "to practice, perform; to accustom oneself to; to labor; to sow a field;" Mid.Pers. warz- "to work, do, practice;" Av. varəz- "to work, do, perform, exercise;" cf. Gk. ergon "work;" Arm. gorc "work;" Lith. verziu "tie, fasten, squeeze," vargas "need, distress;" Goth. waurkjan; O.E. wyrcan "work," wrecan "to drive, hunt, pursue;" E. work; PIE base *werg- "to work."
2) varzé, noun from present stem varz- + suffix .


Fr.: pratiquant   

Actively following a specified career or way of life.

practice; → -ing.


Fr.: praticien   

A professional man, especially in medicine and the law.

Alteration of practician, → practice (+ -ian) + -er, → -or.

Varzmand, from varz, → practice, + -mand, → -ist.

  پرایسپه، کندو، آخور   
Perâysepé, Kandu, Âxor

Fr.: la Crèche   

An → open cluster in the constellation → Cancer containing about 50 stars of 6th magnitude or fainter. It lies 577 light-years away. Also called NGC 2632, the Beehive Cluster, or the Manger.

From L. praesepe "crib," from which cattle or horses are fed, manger; the neighboring brighter stars Gamma and Delta Cancri (Asellus Borealis and Asellus Australis) were pictured as asses which fed from a manger.

Perâysepé, loan from L., as above.
Kandu "beehive; a large earthen vessel in which grain is kept;" cf. Skt. kunda- "a bowl-shaped vessel, basin; the lower abdomen."
&ACIRC;xor "manger," prefixed xor "to eat" (semantically like E. manger, Fr. mangeoire, from L. manducare, mandere "to chew, eat"), from Mid.Pers. âxwarr; Av. avô-xvarəna- "drinking fountain; a water spring," from avô- "water" + xvarəna-, from xvar- "to consume, eat;" Mid.Pers. xvardan "to eat, enjoy (food);" Mod.Pers. xordan "to eat, drink, devour," Laki dialect hovârden "to eat;" Proto-Iranian *huar- "to consume, eat."


Fr.: pragmatique   

Concerned with practical results and values; treating things in a practical way.

M.Fr. pragmatique, from L. pragmaticus "skilled in business or law," from Gk. pragmatikos "versed in business," from pragma (genitive pragmatos) "civil business, deed, act," from prassein "to do, act, perform."

Varzâl-gerâ, literally "practice-inclined," from varzâl, → practical, + -gerâ "inclining toward, intending, making for," → -ist.

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