An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 587

Fr.: total   

Constituting or comprising the whole; entire; complete in extent or degree. Related term → general = harvin (هروین).

M.E., from O.Fr. total, from M.L. totalis "entire, total," from L. totus "all, whole, entire," of unknown origin.

Mid.Pers. hamâk, hamâg "total, all," hamâkih "totality," related to Mod.Pers. hamé- "all," variant hami "all the time, always;" Mid.Pers. hamê "all the time, always;" Av. hama- "any" (cf. Skt. sama-"any, every, whichever;" Gk. amo-then "whichever;" Goth. sums "any;" O.N. sumr "any;" O.E. sum "some;" E. some) + suffix -âk.

total abundance
  فراوانی ِ هماک   
farâvâni-ye hamâk

Fr.: abondance totale   

Same as → elemental abundance.

total; → abundance.

total eclipse
  گرفت ِ هماک   
gereft-e hamâk

Fr.: éclipse totale   

An → eclipse in which the whole of the disk of the Sun or Moon is obscured. See also → annular eclipse, → partial eclipse, → totality, → totality path.

total; → eclipse.

total energy
  کاروژ ِ هماک   
kâruž-e hamâk

Fr.: énergie totale   

The sum of all forms of energy involved in a system.

total; → energy.

total function
  کریای ِ هماک   
karyâ-ye hamâk

Fr.: fonction totale   

A function whose value is defined for all possible input values.

total; → function.

total gravity
  گرانی ِ هماک   
gerâni-ye hamâk

Fr.: gravité totale   

In a → rotating star, the sum of the → gravitational, → centrifugal, and → radiative accelerations. See also → effective gravity.

total; → gravity.

total internal reflection
  بازتاب ِ هماک ِ درونی   
bâztâb-e hamâk-e daruni

Fr.: réflexion totale interne   

A phenomenon occurring when a light ray traveling cross an → interface from a higher → refractive index medium to a lower refractive index medium hits the interface at an angle larger than the → critical angle. In these conditions the light will not pass through to the second → medium at all. Instead, all of it will be reflected back into the first medium.

total; → internal; → reflection.

total lunar eclipse
  مانگ‌گرفت ِ هماک   
mânggereft-e hamâk

Fr.: éclipse lunaire totale   

A → lunar eclipse when the entire → Moon passes through the Earth's → umbra. The maximum duration of a total lunar eclipse is 1h 47m. It happens when the Moon crosses the umbra at its → apogee, where it moves the most slowly, and the Earth is at its → aphelion. The longest total lunar eclipse of the 21st century, lasting 1h 42m 59s, occurred on the night of 27 to 28 July 2018 (Europe, Africa, Asia, Australia, and New Zealand). See also → tetrad.

total; → lunar; → eclipse.

total pressure
  فشار ِ هماک   
fešâr-e hamâk

Fr.: pression totale   

The sum of → static pressure, → dynamic pressure, and → hydrostatic pressure in the → Bernoulli equation.

total, → pressure.


Fr.: totalitaire   

1) Of or relating to a centralized government that does not tolerate parties of differing opinion and that exercises dictatorial control over many aspects of life.
2) Exercising control over the freedom, will, or thought of others; authoritarian; autocratic.
3) An adherent of totalitarianism (

From totali-, from → totality + -arian, a suffix forming adjectives or nouns ending in → -ary.

Hamâkigerâyi, from hamâki, → totality, + -gerâ, → ist.


Fr.: totalitarisme   

1) The practices and principles of a totalitarian regime.
2) Absolute control by the state or a governing branch of a highly centralized institution (

totalitarian; → -ism.


Fr.: totalité   

The period during a → solar eclipse when the → Sun is completely blocked by the → Moon. Totality for a → lunar eclipse is the period when the Moon is in the complete → shadow of the → Earth. For a solar eclipse totality can last from only several fractions of a second to a theoretical maximum of 7m 31s, depending on the → distance from the Moon to the Earth. For a lunar eclipse totality can last up to 1h 47m, also depending on the distance from the Moon to the Earth and on its → passage through the shadow. See also → totality path.

total; → -ity.

totality path
  په ِ هماکی، گذرگاه ِ ~   
pah-e hamâki, gozargâh-e ~

Fr.: ligne de totalité   

Of a → solar eclipse, the path of the → umbra across the → Earth. The totality path is usually about 100 km across, but under the most favorable conditions, when the → Moon is at its nearest → distance to Earth and the Earth is at its farthest distance from the Sun, the umbra can have a diameter of about 270 km.

totality; → path.

  ۱) بساویدن؛ ۲) بساوش   
1) basâvidan (#); 2) basâveš

Fr.: toucher   

1a) To put the hand, finger, etc., on or into contact with (something) to feel it.
1b) To come into contact with and perceive (something), as the hand or the like does.
2) The act or fact of touching (

M.E. to(u)chen, from O.Fr. tochier "to touch, hit; deal with" from V.L. *toccare "to knock, strike" as a bell.

Basâvidan, ultimately from Proto-Ir. *apa-sau-, from *sau- "to rub;" cf. Sogdian ps'w- "to touch;" Pers. + sâyidan, variants sâbidan, sudan "to bruise, file, touch" pasâvidan "to touch" (Khotanese sauy- "to rub."

borj (#)

Fr.: tour   

A building or structure taller than its diameter and high relative to its surroundings, either separated or forming part of a building.

From M.E. tour, earlier tur, tor, from O.Fr., from L. turris, from Gk. tyrris "tower."

Borj "tower," related to Pers. borz "height, magnitude, greatness," boland "high," bâlâ "up, above, high, elevated, height," Laki dialect berg "hill, mountain;" Mid.Pers. burz "height," buland "high;" O.Pers. baršan- "height;" Av. barəz- "high, mount," barezan- "height;" cf. Skt. bhrant- "high;" L. fortis "strong" (Fr. and E. force); O.E. burg, burh "castle, fortified place," from P.Gmc. *burgs "fortress;" Ger. Burg "castle," Goth. baurgs "city," E. burg, borough, Fr. bourgeois, bourgeoisie, faubourg; PIE base *bhergh- "high;" borj loaned into Ar. from Mid.Pers. as burj.

tower telescope
  دوربین ِ برجی، تلسکوپ ِ ~   
durbin-e borji, teleskop-e ~

Fr.: télescope vertical, tour solaire   

A telescope, usually of long → focal length, that is situated underneath a tower. Tower telescopes are mainly used for observation of the Sun. See also → solar telescope; → solar tower.

tower; → telescope.

bâzicé (#)

Fr.: jouet   

An object, often a representation of something, that a child can play with

M.E. toye, of unknown origin.

Bâzicé, from bâzi "game, play;" Mid.Pers. wâzig "play, game;" related to bâzidan "to play," bâxtan "to loose;" cf. Skt. vāja- "contest, war, prize, booty;" + -cé suffix of relation.

toy model
  مدل ِ بازیچه   
model-e bâzicé

Fr.: modèle-jouet   

A simplified model that succeeds in capturing and furthering our understanding of one particular aspect of a physical situation, but which does not manage to describe all important aspects of that situation (Carl H. Brans).

toy; → model.

  ۱) مله؛ ۲) ملیدن   
1) malé; 2) malidan

Fr.: 1) trace; 2) suivre la trace   

1a) A surviving mark, sign, or evidence of the former existence, influence, or action of some agent or event; vestige.
1b) A barely discernible indication or evidence of some quantity, quality, characteristic, expression, etc.
1c) An extremely small amount of some chemical component (
1d) Math.: → trace of a matrix.
2a) To follow the footprints, track, or traces of.
2b) To follow, make out, or determine the course or line of, especially by going backward from the latest evidence, nearest existence, etc. (

M.E. tracen, from M.Fr. tracier, from V.L. *tractiare "delineate, score, trace," from L. tractus "track, course," literally "a drawing out," from p.p. stem of trahere "to pull, draw."

Gilaki mâle "mark, trace, fingerprint; scar," pâ mâle "footprint," gaz mâle "bite mark;" Aftari mâl "trace, mark," pae mâl "footprint," ponjé mâl "mark of hand with fingers;" Tabari mâl "mark, trace," ling mâl "footprint," probably related to mâlidan "to touch, rub; besmear;" Mid.Pers. mâlih- "to be touched;" (Gurâni) mâl, mâlâ- Xunsâri mâl-/mâlâ "to smear, stroke."

trace element
  بن‌پار ِ مله   
bonpâr-e malé

Fr.: élément trace, oligo-élément   

Any → chemical element that is found in extremely small amounts, especially one used by organisms and held essential to maintain proper physical functioning.

trace; → element.

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