An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 233 Search : era

Fr.: interaction   

General: Mutual or reciprocal action or influence.
Physics: 1) What happens between a system and its surroundings when an observable change in one corresponds to or correlates with an observable change in the other.
2) The natural phenomenon of the transfer of energy between two particles. The four known kinds of interactions, in the order of increasing strength, are: → gravitational, → weak, → electromagnetic, and → strong.

Interaction, from → inter-; + → action.



Capable of acting on or influencing each other

From → interaction; + → -al.


Fr.: interactif   

1) Acting one upon or with the other.
2) Computers: Of or pertaining to a system or program that maintains an exchange with the user, alternately accepting input and then responding.

inter-; → active.

interarm region
  ناحیه‌ی ِ اندربازو، ~ ِ اندر-ا َرم   
nâhiye-ye andarbâzu, ~ andararm

Fr.: région interbras   

A low-density region separating the spiral arms of a galaxy.

Interarm, from → inter- + arm "body part," from O.E. earm "arm," from P.Gmc. *armaz (cf. M.Du., Ger. arm, O.N. armr, O.Fris. erm), from PIE base *ar- "to fit, join;" Mod.Pers. arm "arm, from the elbow to the shoulder;" Av. arma-, arəmo- "arm;" Skt. irma- "arm;" Gk. arthron "a joint," L. armus "shoulder;" → region.

Andarbâzu, from andar-, → inter-, + bâzu "arm," from Mid.Pers. bâzûk "arm;" Av. bāzu- "arm;" cf. Skt. bāhu- "arm, forearm;" Gk. pechys "forearm, arm, ell;" O.H.G. buog "shoulder;" Ger. Bug "shoulder;" Du. boeg; O.E. bôg, bôh "shoulder, bough;" E. bough " a branch of a tree;" PIE *bhaghu- "arm"); nahiyé, → region. Andararm, from andar-, → inter-, + arm, as above.


Fr.: interatomique   

Between atoms; relating to the interaction of different atoms.

inter-; → atomic.


Fr.: interopérabilité   

The ability of different types of computers, networks, operating systems, and software applications to work together by exchanging and sharing information in a standardized, accurate, and effective manner.

inter-; → operability.


Fr.: itérer   

1) To utter or to do something over again or repeatedly. → repeat.
2) Math.: → iteration.

Iterate "to do again, repeat," back-formation from iteration, from L. iterationem (nom. iteratio) "repetition," noun of action from iterare "to do again, repeat," from iterum "again, for the second time;" cf. Skt. itara- "the other (of the two), another."

Itaridan, from L. iter(um), Skt. itar(a-), as above, and Pers. dialects Kâšâni (Voništun) târ "the other;" Kurd. tir "the other" + -idan Pers. infinitive suffix.


Fr.: itération   

A computational process involving a succession of approximations, which consists of repeating the operation by inputting the outcome of each preceding operation to improve the final result until a desired accuracy is achieved. Compare → repetition.

Verbal noun of → iterate.

iterative method
  روش ِ ایترشی   
raveš-e itareši

Fr.: méthode itérative   

A method of computation in mathematics using → iteration.

Iterative, characterized by or involving → iteration; → method.

Jurassic era
  دوره‌ی ِ ژوراسیک   
dowre-ye Žurasik (#)

Fr.: ère jurassique   

A period of the Mesozoic era, spanning the time between the Triassic and the → Cretaceous periods, about 200 to 145 million years ago. The start of the period is marked by the major Triassic-Jurassic → mass extinction event.

Jurassic; → era.

kinetic temperature
  دمای ِ جنبشی   
damâ-ye jonbeši (#)

Fr.: température cinétique   

The temperature of a gas defined in terms of the average kinetic energy of its atoms or molecules.

kinetic; → temperature.

Laplace operator
  آپارگر ِ لاپلاس   
âpârgar-e Laplace

Fr.: opérateur de Laplace   

Same as → Laplacian.

Laplace; → operator.

  بری، کناری، پهلویی   
bari, kenâri, pahluyi

Fr.: latéral   

Of or relating to the → side; situated at, proceeding from, or directed to a side (

M.E., from O.Fr. latéral and directly from L. lateralis "belonging to the side," from latus "the side, flank; lateral surface."

Kenâri, relating to kenâr, → side.

lepton degeneracy
  واگنی ِ لپتون   
vâgeni-ye lepton

Fr.: dégénérescence des leptons   

Postulate that the magnitude of the lepton number density is comparable to or larger than the thermal radiation photon number density, so relaxation to equilibrium produces a degenerate sea of neutrinos. Degenerate neutrinos would suppress the number of neutrons relative to protons in the very early Universe; degenerate antineutrinos would suppress the number of protons relative to neutrons. Either case would affect BBNS (Peebles, P. et al., 2009, Finding the Big Bang, Cambridge: UK, Cambridge Univ. Press).

lepton; → degeneracy.

lepton era
  دوران ِ لپتونی   
dowrân-e leptoni (#)

Fr.: ère leptonique   

The era following the hadronic era, when the Universe consisted mainly of leptons and photons. It began when the temperature dropped below 1012 degrees kelvin some 10-4 seconds after the Big Bang, and it lasted until the temperature fell below 1010 degrees kelvin, at an era of about 1 second.

lepton; → era.

linear acceleration
  شتاب ِ خطی   
šetâb-e xatti

Fr.: accélération linéaire   

The rate of change of the → linear velocity with time. It is defined by the expression Δvt and is equal to the → first derivative of the → linear velocity.

linear; → acceleration.

neveštârgân (#)

Fr.: littérature   

1) Writings in which expression and form, in connection with ideas of permanent and universal interest, are characteristic or essential features, as poetry, novels, history, biography, and essays.
2) The entire body of writings of a specific language, period, people, etc.
3) The writings dealing with a particular subject (

From L. literatura/litteratura "writing, grammar, learning," from litera/littera "letter."

Neveštârgân, from neveštâr, literally "written; writing," verbal noun from neveštan, nevis- "to write;" Mid.Pers. nibištan, nibes- "to write;" Av./O.Pers. nī- "down; in, into," → ni- (PIE), + paēs- "to paint; to adorn," paēsa- "adornment" (Mid.Pers. pēsīdan "to adorn"); O.Pers. pais- "to adorn, cut, engrave" (Mod.Pers. pisé "variegated"); cf. Skt. piśáti "adorns; cuts;" Gk. poikilos "multicolored;" L. pingit "embroiders, paints;" O.C.S. pisati "to write;" O.H.G. fēh "multicolored;" Lith. piēšti "to draw, adorn;" PIE base *peik- "colored, speckled," + -gân suffix of suffix forming plural entities, from Mid.Pers. -gânag.

magnetocentrifugal acceleration
  شتاب ِ مغنات-مرکزگریز   
šetâb-e meqnât-markazgoriz

Fr.: accelération magnetocentrifuge   

The acceleration exerted on the plasma particles according to the → magnetocentrifugal model.

magnetocentrifugal model; → acceleration.

matter era
  دوران ِ مادّه   
dowrân-e mâddé (#)

Fr.: ère dominée par la matière   

A critical change in the history of the Universe, which occurred after the radiation era, when the density of energy contained within matter exceeded the density of energy contained within radiation. This transition started about 5000 years after the Big Bang, when the temperature had fallen to 3 x 104 K. Later, 380 000 years after the Big Bang, when the temperature was 3000 K, matter and radiation were no longer coupled together and the Universe became transparent.

matter; → era.

Merak (β Ursae Majoris)
Merâq (#)

Fr.: Merak   

A blue → dwarf star of → spectral type A1 with an → apparent magnitude of 2.37 in the constellation → Ursa Major. It lies 79 → light-years away and has a → luminosity almost 60 times solar, and a mass about triple that of the Sun. Although Merak ranks fifth in brightness in the → Big Dipper, it received the Beta designation from Bayer, who lettered the Dipper's stars from front to back.

From Ar. al-Maraqq (المراق) "the soft parts of the belly, the loins."

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